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The Toxic Chemistry of Everyday Products

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Institutional racism has shaped inequality with the help of cultural factors. People have become colorblind because of the success of some African-Americans. Oprah is the richest African-American in America but she ranks at number 221 of Forbes 2014 400 richest Americans.

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Dissertation Conclusion

Conclusion (The Last Chapter)

  • Introduction
  • Research Objectives: Summary of Findings and Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • [Contribution to knowledge] For Doctorate Students Only
  • Limitations
  • Self-reflection.
  1. The introduction part of your dissertation conclusion revives the reader’s memory about your research aims and objective and gives a quick run-down on the content of your concluding section.
  2. In the Research Objectives: Summary of Findings and Conclusions, to the subsequent questions:
  • As a result of your Literature Review and empirical research (if you did both), what individual research objectives did you find out?’
  • ‘What conclusions have you drawn thereby?’
  • For each research objective, make your findings clear to the readers and offer a view on what your research is telling you.

  • Your dissertation conclusion is actually a derivative of your research findings and the recommendations are based on your dissertation conclusion. In recommendation part of your dissertation conclusion, you show two types of recommendations as;
    • Recommendations linked to your conclusions
  • Recommendations as suggestions for future research

    This part of dissertation conclusion begins with the comprehensive explanation of your recommendations with practical and rational ways or their implementations.

  • In general, this is not mandatory for Master’s students to make a contribution to knowledge. However, if it is, you have to add a sub-section in your dissertation conclusion section entitled Contribution to Knowledge. This subsection should consider your contribution in two ways:
    • Contribution as a result of your Literature Review findings and your empirical work.
  • Contribution by comparing and contrasting your work/findings against the work of other researchers.
  • In the Limitations, you show that your research work meets the standard in reference to the conceived practical and theoretical limitations. For example, impossibility, inability, lack of time, restrictions, etc. This is not utterly essential to make a Limitations sub-section as long as you refer to the limitations of your work in between the dissertation conclusion. What you can do is to smartly turn some of the limitations into recommendations.
  • In the Self-reflection, reflect on two questions: ‘What advice would you give to other students’ and ‘If you had to do it [your dissertation] again what would you do differently, if anything?’
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    personal statement for undergraduate

    How to Write a Personal Statement for an Undergraduate Application

    Read all the materials that you are provided. These personal statements often include specific references to a portion of your life, and are evaluated based on how well you answer the given question. You don’t want to waste precious space addressing a question they didn’t ask, so take the time to make sure you understand the prompt clearly.

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    Research your desired school’s statement of purpose. Each school has a specific statement of purpose that indicates what kind of institution it is, what skills the university values and promotes, and what they expect from their students. Peruse your school’s website and read all of this information so that you can reference it in your letter. [1]

    • Usually, you can find this kind of information on a university’s homepage or on a page on which the university’s president discusses his/her vision for the school in an open letter to the student body and prospective students.
    • You want to make the school think you will be a perfect fit as one of their students. This is a great way to do that.

    Read other personal statements. Ask your older friends, relatives, or teachers if they have examples of personal statements that you can read. Or you can search for examples on the internet. It is very helpful to see what a successful personal statement looks like before you begin crafting your own.

    Part Two of Four:
    Deciding What to Include Edit

    Be selective. In a personal statement, you will have a word limit or page limit. This means that you can only include what fits within the maximum allowed characters. So, you can’t afford to waste this precious space on filler or unnecessary information. Decide what is absolutely crucial for you to say in your personal statement and then you can add more if you have the space.

    • Include the elements that illustrate your commitment to academic and community involvement, as well as other things that will make the committee believe you are a good candidate for their school. Avoid things that could be viewed negatively or misinterpreted.

    Be strategic. The personal statement is the perfect place to include things that won’t be obvious in the rest of your application. So, if you are able to list all of your volunteering experience elsewhere in the application, don’t focus on that so much in your personal statement. You don’t want to waste the limited space you have repeating yourself. [2]

    • Remember, the personal statement is usually the only place where you have free reign to decide what information to include. So take careful stock of what you have listed elsewhere in your application and focus on other things in your statement.

    Provide explanations when necessary. If you feel like there were extenuating circumstances that caused a certain outcome, this is the place to explain it.

    • For example, if you had some kind of illness that caused you to miss a lot of school days and, thus, your grades weren’t as good as they would have otherwise been, you can mention that here. However, be careful not to make it sound like a sob story or like you are looking for sympathy.

    Avoid controversy. There is no way to predict who will be reading your personal statement or what their values and beliefs will be. The last thing you want to do is alienate your reader right off the bat by including something that they vehemently disagree with. [3]

    • A good rule of thumb here is to avoid religious or political topics in general because they are often controversial subjects.

    Focus on the introductory paragraph. You want to grab your reader’s attention from the beginning. [4] Begin your personal statement with a complete sentence readdressing the original question but providing your own answer. (e.g. if the question was “What was the best experience in your high school career?”, the answer might be phrased “The best experience of my high school career was. ”).

    • Consider starting with a personal anecdote or clever story that draws the reader in right away.

    Provide details. Continue throughout the statement giving very specific and detailed reasons or justifications for why you feel the way you do. Just answering the question outright isn’t enough of a reason for them to believe you, so you should spend the majority of your personal statement giving specific life experiences that justify your position or personal feeling on the given subject. This will also help your reader remember more specifics about your application. [5]

    • For example, say that you volunteered at the Fulton County Humane Society rather than just your local humane society. Or that you won the Norman Mailer Student Writing Award instead of just saying you won an award for writing. Providing specific details like this will help your application stick out more in the minds of the review board members.

    Finish with style. Just stopping after some reasons and life experiences isn’t enough; you must make the reader understand that you weren’t just rambling. Tie together all of the fundamental elements you’ve written about so far, and summarize your main point.

    • Try coming full circle and referring back to something you mention at the beginning of your essay. For example, if you begin by discussing a particularly transformational moment in your life, you could close the personal statement by referring back to that experience and how it has helped prepare you to be a successful college student.

    How to Apply to College

    How to Improve Your Writing Skills

    How to Write a Personal Statement for Medical School

    How to Get Into Harvard University

    How to Get Into MIT

    How to Write a Statement of Purpose

    How to Get Into Medical School

    How to Get a Fulbright Scholarship

    How to Apply for a PhD in the US

    How to Get a College Scholarship

    Personal statement

    How to write an effective personal statement

    The first thing you must remember is that your personal statement will probably be the only opportunity you get to “talk” directly to the Admissions Selector on the programme you want to study. It is therefore vitally important that you make this statement as effective as possible! If you do apply to a programme which invites candidates to interview, your personal statement may also form the basis of your interview.

    Your personal statement is an opportunity for you to demonstrate why you think you would be a good student for the programme you are applying to and why the University should select your application over those of other candidates. It is primarily an academic statement and you must target it very directly towards the subject in which you are interested, though a University will also want to know something about your more general interests.

    We recommend that you cover three main areas in your personal statement in the following order:

    1. Why this subject?

    This section could start with a short sentence and needs to capture the reason why you are interested in studying on the programme you are applying for. Some of the most effective personal statements start simply, for example, “I want to study History because…”. With this opening statement you are trying to communicate to the Admissions Selector your enthusiasm for the programme. You might then want to think about covering these questions and areas:

    • Your knowledge of the subject area
    • What does the programme entail?
    • Why does it interest you?
    • What interests you the most?
    • Where could studying the programme lead?

    2. Why You?

    Once you have outlined your reasons for being interested in the programme you are applying to, you need to demonstrate why you would be a good student. In this section you are trying to convey your inclination and ability to study on the programme. You need to be able to show the admissions tutor that you have the right background in terms of academic ability and the right interest or inclination, that is, that you know what the programme you want to study involves. For example, if you want to be a primary school teacher but have never worked with children of that age the admissions tutor will wonder what your inclination to study to be a teacher is! When writing this section you’ll need to think about and quote evidence from:

    • Your academic studies
    • Any voluntary work
    • Your hobbies and interests
    • Things you have learned from books, newspapers, TV programmes and so on
    • Experiences in your year out (if you are having one)
    • Any relevant work experience (e.g. medicine, physiotherapy)
    • Particular project work in your studies

    3. Are you interesting and unique?

    Finally, you should write about what makes you an interesting and unique person; all those extra things you have done or experienced which will bring something extra to the community of the University you want to join. It doesn’t matter what you’ve done, you need to reflect on the skills and lessons you have learned and write about that. You may want to cover:

    • What do you enjoy doing outside of school
    • Your hobbies, leisure activities
    • Sports you participate in
    • Other sorts of extra-curricular activities
    • Significant responsibilities you hold, at home or in clubs or societies
    • Special achievements
    • What you have learned if you have had a job

    Remember to mention these parts of your life, and if appropriate the skills that will help you with the course.


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    Writing a UCAS Undergraduate personal statement

    The personal statement is an important part of the UCAS application. It's your chance to describe you ambitions, skills, and experience.

    Not sure how to start your personal statement?

    Our video contains advice from an admissions tutor about how to plan, start, structure and end your personal statement.

    Signed personal statement video

    This signed video takes you through what to consider when writing your personal statement.

    Our brand new personal statement tool!

    You can write up to 4,000 characters of text that show you’d make a great student – so it might take a few redrafts until you’re happy with it.

    This tool will help you think about what to include in your personal statement, and how to structure it. It also counts how many characters you’ve used, so it’s easy to see when you’re close to that 4,000 character limit.

    • Use our personal statement timeline to see when you need to get started.
    • Course descriptions mention the qualities, skills and experience it’s useful to have for each subject – take note of these to help you decide what to write about.
    • Remember it’s the same personal statement for all the courses you apply to, so avoid mentioning unis and colleges by name. Most students choose similar subjects, but if you’ve chosen a variety, just write about common themes – like problem solving or creativity.
    • If you’ve got a questions about writing your personal statement, don’t worry you’re not alone. Check out our blogs:
      • five of the most frequently asked questions about personal statements. answered by admissions staff from unis and colleges
      • 10 places to find pointers about writing your personal statement

    What to write about

    1. Why you are applying – your ambitions and what interests you about the subject, course providers and higher education.
    2. What makes you suitable – any relevant skills, experience or achievements gained from education, work or other activities.

    These are great ways to prepare for higher education.

    If you do or have done any of these before, they could be ideal things to mention in your personal statement. Or you might be able to organise or start a new activity before you send your application.

    • Clubs or societies you belong to – perhaps sporting, creative or musical.
    • Employment or volunteering – such as vInspired Awards. Step Together or Project Trust )
    • Skills developed with ASDAN. Duke of Edinburgh. National Citizen Service or young enterprise .
    • Science, technology, engineering or maths skills gained with the Crest Awards .
    • A higher education taster course at a summer school like Villiers Park
    • You may also be able to get accreditation in personal effectiveness from ASDAN for activities that prepare you for higher education.
    • Study free online courses like FutureLearn or the Digital Business Academy .

    As an international student there are a few extra things you should mention.

    1. Why you want to study in the UK
    2. Your English language skills and any English courses or tests you’ve taken
    3. Why you want to be an international student rather than study in your own country

    Here’s where you can mention any alternative entry requirements you’ve used – like an Access course or APL – demonstrating the skills and knowledge you’ve gained through your previous experiences.

    How to write it

    There’s no definite formula to follow – just take your time and follow these guidelines.

    • Structure your info to reflect the skills and qualities the universities and colleges value most.
    • Write in an enthusiastic, concise and natural style – nothing too complex.
    • Try to stand out, but be careful with humour, quotes or anything unusual – just in case the admissions tutor doesn’t have the same sense of humour as you.
    • Proofread aloud and get your teachers, advisers, and family to check – then redraft until you’re happy with it and the grammar, spelling, and punctuation are correct.

    We recommend you write your personal statement first, and then copy and paste it into your online application when you’re done.

    Check the 4,000 character and 47 line limits though – some word processors get different values if they don’t count tabs and paragraph spacing as individual characters.

    When you do add it to your application, save it regularly as it times out after 35 minutes of inactivity.

    Applying for Teacher Education in Scotland?

    If you’re applying to study Teacher Education in Scotland, you’ll need to make your application through the UCAS Undergraduate scheme. Read dedicated personal statement advice from Scottish training providers about what to include in your personal statement.

    You can use some ​European characters in your personal details, personal statement, employment and referee details. Some of these will be substituted with UK equivalent characters. Check our Extended character sets substitutions ​ for more details.

    It’s not possible to apply in an alternative language, unless you’re applying to Welsh course providers and you’d like to make your application entirely in Welsh.

    1. To register in Welsh, when you go to the application service ‘Apply’, you can select ‘Cymraeg’.
    2. When you’re logged in to your application you can change the language to English or Welsh on the ‘Options’ page.
    3. The help text in Apply is available in Welsh too.
    4. In Apply you can choose to receive correspondence from course providers and from us in Welsh.

    We screen all personal statements across Copycatch our Similarity Detection system – so make sure your personal statement is all your own work. Don’t copy from anyone else or from the internet and don’t share your personal statement with other applicants.

    If we find any similarity in your personal statement, your application will be flagged. Then we’ll email an alert to you and your university or college choices and this could have serious consequences for your application.

    You can only submit one personal statement – the same one for all the courses you apply to – and you can’t change it after your application has been submitted.

    If you want to send any more information you can ask your university and college choices if they’ll accept further details.

    • If they agree, you should send it to them, rather than us.
    • After we receive your application, we’ll send you a welcome email that includes your Personal ID – quote your Personal ID along with the further information you send to the unis and colleges, so they can link it to your UCAS application.

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    To what extent does Othello’s final speech affect our assessment of him? What is the effect of his final anecdote about the Turk?

    Certainly, Othello’s final speech is not all that one might wish for—his claim to be “one not easily jealous” is open to question, and his claim that he “loved not wisely but too well” seems both an understatement and an exaggeration (V.ii. 354, 353 ). Further, Othello’s invocation of his own military triumphs might be seen as another example of Othello dangerously misordering his priorities. He seems to position his political reputation as his biggest concern, as he did in Act III, scene iii, lines 353–355. when, having decided that Desdemona does not love him, he exclaimed, “Farewell the tranquil mind, farewell content, / Farewell the plumed troop and the big wars / That make ambition virtue.”

    At the same time, however, Othello’s final speech does seem to restore to him somewhat the nobility that characterized him at the beginning of the play. From almost the first time he opens his mouth, Othello demonstrates—and the other characters confirm—his hypnotic eloquence when he speaks about his exploits in battle. Othello’s final speech puts us in mind of his long speech in Act I, scene iii, so that we see him, even if only for a moment, as we saw him then. This process of conflating two different times and views of Othello is similar to the rhetorical effect achieved by Othello’s dying words, where he makes his suicide seem a noble and heroic deed by conflating it with the killing of a Turk in service of the state.

    What role does incoherent language play in Othello. How does Othello’s language change over the course of the play? Pay particular attention to the handkerchief scene in Act III, scene iii, and Othello’s fit in Act IV, scene i.

    At the beginning of the play, Othello has such confidence in his skill with language that he can claim that he is “rude” in speech, knowing that no one will possibly believe him (I.iii. 81 ). He then dazzles his audience with a forty-line speech that effortlessly weaves words such as “hair-breadth” and “Anthropophagi” into blank verse lines. But in the moments when the pressure applied by Iago is particularly extreme, Othello’s language deteriorates into fragmented, hesitant, and incoherent syntax. Throughout Act III, scene iii, Othello speaks in short, clipped exclamations and half-sentences such as “Ha!” (III.iii. 169 ), “O misery!” (III.iii. 175 ), and “Dost thou say so?” (III.iii. 209 ). There is also notable repetition, as in “Not a jot, not a jot” (III.iii. 219 ), “O, monstrous, monstrous!” (III.iii. 431 ), “O, blood, blood, blood!” (III.iii. 455 ), and “Damn her, lewd minx! O, damn her, damn her!” (III.iii. 478 ).

    Such moments, when Othello shifts from his typical seemingly effortless verse to near inarticulateness, demonstrate the extent to which Othello’s passion has broken down his self-control. In Act III, scene iii, he is still speaking in mostly coherent sentences or phrases; but this is no longer the case in Act IV, scene i. This scene begins with Iago saying, “Will you think so?” and Othello can only helplessly and automatically echo, “Think so, Iago?” (IV.i. 1–2 ). Iago then introduces the word “lie” into the conversation, which sends Othello into a frenzy as he attempts to sort out the semantic differences between Cassio “lying on” (that is, lying about) Desdemona and “lying with” (that is, having sex with) her (IV.i. 33–35 ). The various words and images Iago has planted in Othello’s mind over the course of the play are transformed into impressionistic, sporadic eruptions out of Othello’s mouth: “Lie with her? ’Swounds, that’s fulsome! Handkerchief—confessions—handkerchief” (IV.i. 35–36 ). These eruptions culminate in the nonsense of “Pish! Noses, ears, and lips!” (IV.i. 40 ). Ultimately, Othello’s inability to articulate seems to overcome him physically, as he collapses “in a trance” (IV.i. 41. stage direction).

    Analyze Desdemona’s role. To what extent is she merely a passive victim of Othello’s brutality? How does her character change when she is not with Othello?

    At the end of Othello, Desdemona seems to be the most passive kind of victim. Smothered, deprived of breath and of words by her husband, she is totally overwhelmed by Othello’s insane jealousy and physical strength. But before her murder, Desdemona is remarkable for showing more passivity when her husband is not around and more assertiveness when he is.

    Desdemona’s first speech, in which she defends her recent marriage, is confident and forthright. When she gives it, she is the only female character onstage, surrounded by powerful men who include the duke, her husband, and her father, but she is not ashamed to assert her belief in the validity of her desires and actions. Unfortunately, Iago recognizes Desdemona’s forthrightness and uses it against her. He exploits her willingness to demand and justify what she wants by making Cassio her cause and, simultaneously, Othello’s enemy. In Act III, scene iii, Desdemona asks Othello to forgive Cassio and persists, in spite of Othello’s rising consternation, until her husband declares, “I will deny thee nothing” (III.iii. 41–84 ). Her courage is apparent in her refusal to search for the missing handkerchief in Act III, scene iv; in her willingness to shout back at Othello as he abuses her in Act IV, scene i; and in her insistence upon her innocence in Act V, scene ii. Her audacity seems to infuriate Othello all the more, as what he takes to be shameless lies convince him that she is unremorseful in what he believes to be her sin.

    The terrible effect of Othello’s brutality is most obvious in Desdemona’s scenes with Emilia. Emilia is cynical and bawdy, and she gives Desdemona every possible opportunity to bad-mouth Othello. Men, she says in Act III, scene iv, “are all but stomachs, and we all but food. / They eat us hungrily, and when they are full, / They belch us” (III.iv. 100–102 ). Later, she insults Othello: “He called her whore. A beggar in his drink / Could not have laid such terms upon his callet [whore]” (IV.ii. 124–125 ). And, at the end of Act IV, scene iii, she gives a lengthy discourse about the virtues of infidelity. Desdemona, however, never says anything worse than “Heaven keep the monster [jealousy] from Othello’s mind” (III.iv. 158 ). With her closest confidante, Desdemona does not speak ill of her husband, even as she shows the strain of his terrible abuse.

    Suggested Essay Topics

    1. Discuss the role that race plays in Shakespeare’s portrayal of Othello. How do the other characters react to Othello’s skin color or to the fact that he is a Moor? How does Othello see himself?

    2. Discuss the importance of setting in the play, paying close attention to physical details that differentiate Venice from Cyprus and that define the particular character of each location as it pertains to the plot of the play.

    3. Discuss the role of Emilia. How does her character change during the course of the play? Pay particular attention to moments when Emilia decides to be silent and when she decides to speak. What is the effect of her silence about the handkerchief? Do we forgive this silence when she insists on speaking in spite of Iago’s threats in the final scene?

    4. Do a close reading of one of Iago’s soliloquies. Point to moments in the language where Iago most gains an audience’s sympathy and moments where he most repels it. Pay close attention to the way in which Iago develops arguments about what he must and/or will do. To what extent are these arguments convincing? If they are convincing and an audience’s perception of Iago is sympathetic, what happens to its perception of Othello?

    5. Analyze one or more of the play’s bizarre comic scenes: the banter between Iago and Desdemona in Act II, scene i; the drinking song in Act II, scene iii; the clown scenes (Act III, scenes i and iv). How do these scenes echo, reflect, distort, or comment on the more serious matter of the play?

    by IndustrialCarnage. April 02, 2013

    This is perhaps one of Shakespeare’s more interesting plays, if you will. In comparison to Macbeth it isn’t quite the walk in the park.
    I think conceptually it enables the reader to see that characters can influence characters to such a degree that the original traits are masked and changed. Tragedy in this play is definitely a main component – and a great emphasis that perhaps the villain doesn’t always find their true defeat. In a way, wasn’t the “villain” successful? He lied to everyone and pretty much killed whomever got in his way.

    14 out of 20 people found this helpful

    by Promatter. January 11, 2014

    Just a theory
    The role of Emelia in Othello.

    Before I begin expounding on this thought, let me first say that I am not a Shakespearean “Scholar”. I am just a teacher who loves teaching Shakespeare on the off-chance that one of my students will get bitten by the bug and want to study and read more of the man than just the set works that he or she has to cover for exam purposes.
    Having taught Othello to matric classes for the past 4 years, I have developed a few theories of my own about Shakespeare’s “bit” actors. Read more →

    180 out of 211 people found this helpful

    Othello Jealousy Essay

    Jealousy is a major theme in Othello and it is what drives Othello to commit his heinous deed of killing Desdemona. Othello claims to be a man who “loved not wisely, but too well;of one not easily jealous. “(V.ii.347).

    Whilst it is true that his misplaced trust in “honest” Iago and the “ocular proof” of Desdemona’s infidelity drive this play to its tragic end, initially Othello does not show any signs of jealousy and is fully aware of Desdemona’s friendship with Cassio which, until Iago starts his manipulative scheming, is not a concern for Othello because he knows that Desdemona “had eyes and chose me” (III.iii.189). Iago is all too aware of Othello’s ” constant, loving, noble nature” which he will use against him to incite his jealousy.

    Honor and reputation are equally important to Othello and once his jealousy is aroused and he has the proof he needs – “I saw the handkerchief” (V.ii.66)- he must save Desdemona’s own reputation “She turn’d to folly, and she was a whore” (V.ii.133) as well as his own because ” nought I did in hate, but all in honor.”(V.ii.298)

    Othello’s jealousy is therefore a result of circumstances and manipulation. Iago is such a strong personality and has everyone fooled – for most of the play- and his own jealousy appears to be the motivation for his destruction of Othello – and everyone else along the way “I do suspect the lusty Moor.” Othello gives him no cause to suspect him but Iago will get his revenge ” wife for wife”

    To build this in to an essay, you will need a strong introduction. There have been many essays written on Othello’s jealousy so you need to grab your reader’s attention.

    Start with a startling statement such as – From a man with a loving and noble nature, Othello is transformed in to a crazed, babbling and irrational monster.

    Build your quotes in right from the start. You could continue with something like – The man “that was Othello” (V.ii.285) appears more like Iago than anyone could believe as his jealousy, much like Iago’s jealousy, consumes his life and the life of all around him. How could a man, so noble in battle, so respected in society and so loved by his wife, be reduced by such an emotion as to render himself nothing more than “a malignant and turban’d Turk?”(V.ii.356)

    This way you have introduced your main topic (jealousy) which is very important in an introductory paragraph. You can lead into the most planned part of your essay – the thesis statement. Ask yourself what the purpose of your essay is. In this instance, you are trying to convince the reader of your essay about Othello’s jealousy and, presumably, how it is his undoing. You could add a general fact if it will reinforce your statement such as – Othello, and many more before him and still more after him. become so overcome and self-absorbed by their jealousy that communication fails and common sense has no place in a world of overwhelming coincidences and the schemes of others (in this case Iago).

    You will be able to follow with paragraphs which show Othello’s jealousy and also a lack of communication as Othello believes only one person – Iago- despite protestations by others. The part that Iago plays in reinforcing Othello’s jealousy is also important.

    Your conclusion will wrap everything up and basically prove your claims.

    like 6dislike 0

    a+ essay writing

    There’s a ton of information available online about writing papers for college classes, mostly provided by college and university writing departments. But when your political science or biology or economics instructor assigns you a research paper, writing the paper is only half the battle. Before you can start writing, you have to explore the subject to find a topic, locate relevant information, analyze the issues and organize your arguments. These activities take more time and require different skills than the final step—writing the paper. And many students haven’t had a lot of formal training in how to do research and prepare information for writing a “research paper.”

    Librarians provide a lot of help to students in the exploring, finding and organizing phases of their writing projects. They’ve done research on how students approach these tasks. how they feel while they’re doing them, and what kinds of activities lead to a successful research paper (Kuhlthau, 1993 and 1994 ).

    The paper is your final product. but a research paper involves an extensive process before you can generate the product. The Step by Step section will guide you through this process from getting the assignment to writing the paper.

    Writing Services You Can Fully Rely On!

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    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    College Prep Guides: Writing an A+ Admissions Essay

    It is natural to feel stressed about submitting college applications. The information included in the application will play a major role in deciding the future path of your life. However, unlike most other components of the application that offer numbers and statistics, the essay is your chance to show a different side of you as a person. The college application essay is where you can bring your personality to life for college admissions officers. Here are some important tips to help you get started:

    Use Your Voice and Natural Language
    Using a thesaurus to throw in unnecessarily large works often ends up looking rather clunky and awkward. This is especially the case if they are words that you do not normally use. This does not mean that you should write very casually, but do let your own voice come through in the writing. Make it easy for the other person to read and relate to your writing.

    Make it Interesting
    For a moment, imagine that you are an admissions officer. Think about the piles and stacks of essays that you might have to read. Try to choose a unique angle. Each of us is different. What makes you different from other students? One of the most powerful strategies is to use an opening sentence that hooks the reader’s curiosity. For example, instead of simply stating, “I have always loved sports since I was young,” put the reader right there with you on the sports field by writing something like, “Everyone held their breath as I threw the ball towards the basket in those last crucial seconds.”

    Show Versus Tell
    There is major difference between telling someone that you are talented and proving it. Instead of saying that you are proficient at playing the piano, why not prove it by discussing the certificates, awards, or teaching and volunteer experience that might have resulted from it? These are personal details that make your experience more real for the reader. By including such details, you transform a subjective statement to an objective one.

    Beware of Wordiness
    Don’t be afraid to be concise in your essay. You don’t have to fill up pages and pages. A short sentence can be digested by readers much more easily than one that runs on for four lines. Think you can succinctly and accurately present yourself in half a page? Why not try it and ask your teachers and parents to read it over? Less is often more when writing college admissions essays.

    Slang and Jargon
    While you do want to use natural language in an admission essay, you should steer clear of jargon and slang. There are plenty of words in the English language that express all shades of meanings. Use care to pick good words that convey your meaning. This shows that you have put thought and care into your essay, along with the fact that you are a competent writer.

    Sentence Length and Transition
    A common error that many writers (not just students!) make is that they end up with sentences that are all the same length. This repetition makes it boring for the reader. To avoid this, use different styles and lengths of sentences. Use conjunctions and other tools to keep things interesting. Don’t start ever sentence the same way, but instead use transition words to introduce new ideas.

    Active Voice is Better Than Passive
    Active voice verbs and phrases generally sound much more energetic and dynamic than the passive voice. For example instead of saying, “Several students were tutored by me after school,” you might say, “I tutored fifteen students every day after school.” This makes a much stronger impact and helps the reader to identify your strengths and achievements.

    Ask for Opinions
    Before submitting your essay, ask a few people to read it and give you their thoughts. You could ask teachers, friends, coaches, family members, a guidance counselor, or even your boss. Simply borrowing a fresh pair of eyes can help identify things that you may never have noticed about your own essays. Ask them if they might have any suggestions to help improve it, or if there is anything that should be omitted.

    Pay Attention to the Provided Question
    Most colleges provide a question that they want students to answer in their essays. While you do need to reveal information about yourself, your achievements, and your personality in the essay, make sure you answer the question, too. After writing, run through the whole essay to pick out sections that are irrelevant.

    Multiple Revisions
    Writing in general is a process of revisions and fine-tuning. Don’t be dismayed if one of your proofreaders comes back with a list of suggestions. The more you revise the essay, the better crafted it will be. Think of it like a sculptor chiseling a statue: After the main form is created, there is still plenty of cutting and carving needed to make it perfect.

    Want more help? The following are some great online resources to use in preparing your own college application essays:

    • Common Application Essay Advice – Three tips for writing a Common Application essay that admissions officers will remember.
    • Uniqueness in an Essay – Watch a video on how to make your admissions essay stand out from the others.
    • Common Essay Questions – Find some quick answers to common questions that students ask about the admissions essay.
    • Representing Yourself – This guide explains how to help your personality shine through in the essay.
    • Crafting the Admissions Essay – Learn how to carefully shape and perfect an admissions essay so that it represents yourself well.
    • A Look at Admissions Essays (PDF) – This slideshow illustrates what admissions officers are looking for in application essays and how to write for them.
    • Video Essays – What is a video admissions essay and what should you include in it?
    • Admission Essay Tips – This list of the tips covers all the key points for writing a strong admission essay.
    • Subject Ideas (PDF) – Browse through a list of essay topic ideas, along with further tips and resources.
    • A Guide to Video Essays – Learn about video essays and watch a few different examples.
    • What Colleges Want to Hear (PDF) – This quick guide breaks down the main points and areas that colleges want to discover in students’ admission essays.
    • Application Essay Do’s and Don’ts (PDF) – Find out which topics to avoid in your essay, and what to do to strengthen it.
    • Essay Readers Chime In – College admission staff who sift through thousands of letters have compiled a list of essay-writing tips for students.

    GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council™. The Graduate Management Admission Council™ does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this web site. Myers-Briggs® and the Myers-Briggs logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of the Myers & Briggs Foundation, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All contents copyright © 2001-2016 Veritas, LLC. All rights reserved.

    GMAT® is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council™.

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    mla thesis

    Welcome to the Purdue OWL

    This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/). When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom.

    Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

    This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

    Contributors: Elyssa Tardiff, Allen Brizee
    Last Edited: 2014-02-10 10:44:43

    Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

    1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

    • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
    • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
    • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

    If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g. a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

    2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

    3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

    4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

    Thesis Statement Examples

    Example of an analytical thesis statement:

    An analysis of the college admission process reveals one challenge facing counselors: accepting students with high test scores or students with strong extracurricular backgrounds.

    The paper that follows should:

    • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
    • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

    Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

    The life of the typical college student is characterized by time spent studying, attending class, and socializing with peers.

    The paper that follows should:

    • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

    Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

    High school graduates should be required to take a year off to pursue community service projects before entering college in order to increase their maturity and global awareness.

    The paper that follows should:

    • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

    Copyright ©1995-2016 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use .

    The Main Idea of a Thesis Proposal

    When you graduate school one of the main things you should work on is your thesis proposal. If you browse the Web, you’ll find a lot of samples available. But in order to get better prepared for writing a thesis proposal, consider the following writing tip: while the thesis is always written in the past tense, your proposal should be written in present and future tenses.

    Techniques to Use When Writing a Thesis Proposal

    Today we’re going to share with you some super ingredients of a winning thesis proposal. Let’s look through them:

    • Introductory part (usually 1-2 pages)
      • It doesn’t have to be perfect. But it should result in your reader’s interest in the overview.
      • If you like you can write this chapter last. The thing is that you are more likely to have better overview of the project after you’ve written all other chapters of your proposal.
    • Problem statement
      • The first thing you should prepare is the research question. After you’ve done with it, make it a statement noting the adverse consequences of the problem.
      • Your type of study determines the types of questions you have to formulate in your graduate thesis proposal. What do you want to produce or create and what value will it have to you and society?
    • Background
      • As it was suggested earlier, you should capture the reader’s attention and try to show him or her significance of the problem.
      • Provide at least 3 reasons why this specific problem is important for society and specify 2-3 concrete examples of the problem.
    • What is the purpose?
      • It is good to start with “The purpose of my study is…” interpret, change, evaluate, investigate, or analyze the problem.
      • Specify your goal in details. Keep in mind that it should represent an investigative activity.

    Some Other Tips for Graduate Thesis Proposal

    The other important parts you should include in your thesis proposal outline are: literature review, hypotheses, definition of terms, assumption, scope & limitations, procedure and long-term consequences. Each point has its unique features to mention. Contact us today to find out more.

    How to Write Thesis Proposal Outline When You Don’t Have Enough Time or Experience?

    If you feel overwhelmed or just don’t have enough time for thesis proposal writing, you might be interested in online writing services offered by experienced writers. Grademiners are happy to write a stunning thesis proposal for you keeping your deadline and saving your nerves. Give us a call today to get an individual consultation about your thesis. We’re ready to deliver high quality work for a reasonable price and keeping your deadline.

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    What you get are top-notch works that are always custom and properly researched. Our writers are pros. Thus, all the papers you order from us are always 100% original and peerless. Our team makes sure that everything is done straight to the requirements of your tutor and on time.

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    You receive access to your personal cabinet after the order is made. There, just like in a real office, you can control the writing process by exchanging instant messages and upload the paper requirements. When your essay receives the Completed status, you can simply download it. That’s super-easy!

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    an Online Outline

    Introductory Paragraph

    Begin with an interesting quotation related to your opinion about ” + form.topic.value newContent +=”

    (You will need a transition here)

    ” newContent +=” – End the Intro paragraph with your thesis statement:

    ” newContent +=” Even though ” + form.con.value + “, ” + form.opinion.value newContent +=” because ” + form.pro2.value + ” and ” + form.pro1.value newContent +=” .

    Body Paragraph or Section #1

    Topic of the body thesis:
    ” + form.con.value + “

    ” newContent +=” – Find evidence” newContent +=” – like facts, examples, quotations, or statistics that back it up” newContent +=” or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how your evidence supports the topic sentence

    ” newContent +=” Another example that shows that ” + form.con.value + ” is.

    ” newContent +=” – Find more evidence – facts, examples, quotations” newContent +=”, or statistics that back it up or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how this second piece of evidence supports the topic sentence.

    Body Paragraph or Section #2

    ” newContent +=” Even though ” + form.con.value + “, ” + form.opinion.value newContent +=” because ” + form.pro2.value + “.

    ” newContent +=” – Find evidence” newContent +=” – like facts, examples, quotations, or statistics that back it up” newContent +=” or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how your evidence supports the topic sentence

    ” newContent +=” Another example that shows that ” + form.pro2.value + ” is.

    ” newContent +=” – Find more evidence – facts, examples, quotations” newContent +=”, or statistics that back it up or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how this second piece of evidence supports the topic sentence.

    Body Paragraph or Section #3

    ” newContent +=” The most important reason ” + form.opinion.value newContent +=” is because ” + form.pro1.value + “.

    ” newContent +=” – Find evidence” newContent +=” – like facts, examples, quotations, or statistics that back it up” newContent +=” or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how your evidence supports the topic sentence

    ” newContent +=” Another example that shows that ” + form.pro1.value + ” is.

    ” newContent +=” – Find more evidence – facts, examples, quotations” newContent +=”, or statistics that back it up or support the topic sentence of this paragraph.

    ” newContent +=” – Explain how this second piece of evidence supports the topic sentence.


    ” newContent +=” So it is clear that although ” + form.con.value + “, ” + form.opinion.value + ” for two main reasons. ” newContent +=”First, ” + form.pro2.value + “. ” newContent +=”But most importantly, ” + form.pro1.value + “.

    ” newContent +=” – Now you will return to your opening attention-getter from the introduction

    ” newContent +=” – Then end your essay with a powerful So What? statement.

    Do you want to print or copy and email this page?

    brought to you by ThesisBuilder .” newContent +=” ” //write HTML to new window newWindow.document.write(newContent) newWindow.document.close ( ) > >

    Hosting costs are threatening my ability to provide The Thesis Builder free to students worldwide. If you have enjoyed using any of the Thesis Builders since I first posted them in 1995, could I ask you to consider making a donation? I especially encourage any schools or institutions who link to the site to consider supporting this effort.
    Kind regards, Tom

    ElectraGuide is a tool that wants to help high school students:

    1. find a topic (see example topic questions ?)
    2. create a good thesis statement (see an example ?)
    3. and generate an outline (see an example ?)

    To use Thesis Builder, you’ll need:

    • a topic
    • opinions about the topic
    • reasons for your opinion and a main reason others might disagree


    1. Answer the following questions in short phrases (not full sentences).
    2. Do not use periods / full stops (.) at the end or capital letters at the beginning of the phrases you write. You can see an example.
    3. Click the “Build a Thesis” button when you’re finished.
    4. A window will pop open with your Built Thesis.
    5. Go back and adjust your answers to smooth out the thesis until it makes sense and expresses your beliefs. Clicking on the “Build a Thesis” button again will update your thesis to show your changes.
    6. Once you’ve got a thesis statement, use the Make an Online Outline button to generate the framework for your essay. (Would you like to see an example outline ?)

    Let’s get started!

    By Tom March
    Copyright © 1995 Tom March — All Rights Reserved
    Last revised January, 2015

    annotated bibliography papers

    Annotated Bibliography Sample

    Free Annotated Bibliography Sample:

    Atack, Jeremy; Bateman, Fred; Weiss, Thomas “The Regional Diffusion and Adoption of the Steam Engine in American Manufacturing.” The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun. 1980): 281-308.

    By 1900 almost 156,000 steam engines were used in factories. This is where the steam engine first gained popularity. The article also discusses the spread of the steam engine for various uses, one of which became known as the steamboat. In spite of the importance accorded the steam engine during nineteenth-century industrialization, little is known about its rate of diffusion in the United States. Another purpose of this paper is to enhance our knowledge about the spread of this technology. New evidence on steam power use in 1820, 1850, and 1860, combined with published census data from 1870, permits quantitative estimates of the regional variations in timing, pace, and extent of usage before 1900.

    Brown, Alexander Crosby “The Old Bay Line of the Chesapeake: A Sketch of a Hundred
    Years of Steamboat Operation.” William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine, 2nd Ser. Vol. 18, No. 4. (Oct. 1938): 389-405.

    This Article begins by talking about the Baltimore Steam Packet Company, which was organized in 1839 and incorporated by Maryland the next year. This article then goes on to talk about the “Old Bay Line” which is a path taken by steamboats in the Chesapeake Bay. The article also states that one of the earliest attempts to apply steam to the propulsion of watercraft took place on waters that flow into the Chesapeake. This article argues that the Chesapeake Bay should be recognized for steamboats being that first test took place there. Also, steamboats should be referenced to the “Bay Line Old” because this line may claim the distinction of being the oldest steamboat company in America plying over its original route.

    Note: You can find a lot of free essays online at our website if you need!

    Foreman, Grant “River Navigation in the Early Southwest.” The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 15, No. 1. (Jun. 1928): 34-55.

    In this interesting article, the fact that rivers played a large part in the development of the west is stated. It includes a long discussion of the keelboat and the advances it made. It then discusses how the steamboat took over the keelboat and introduced a new era in the west. It increased the possibilities of commerce on western rivers, and gave great impetus to settlement in the country adjacent to those streams.

    Gilmore, Robert Louis; Harrison, John Parker “Juan Bernardo Elbers and the Introduction of Steam Navigation on the Magdalena River.”
    The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 28, No. 3. (Aug. 1948): 335- 359.

    This article talks about the advances in transportation. Prior to flight, the river was the primary source for passenger and freight traffic in many regions. The article then goes on to talk about early forms of river transportation by canoes constructed by the Indians. The need for more cargo transportation and less travel time is what led to the steamboat. This article discusses the problems including death and mass money loss involved in steamboat experimentation in Magdalena. These problems would have been equal to the ones the inventors in the United States would have faced.

    Gray, William H. “Steamboat Transportation on the Orinoco.” The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 25, No. 4. (Nov. 1945): 455-469.

    Haites, Erik F.; Mak, James “Economies of Scale in Western River Steamboating.”
    The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 36, No. 3. (Sep.1976): 689-703.

    This article discuses how the pace of economic transformation in the State’s Economy grew rapidly by inventions, which allowed Americans to travel great distances. The transportation aids discussed in this article include canals, railroads and steamboats. Steamboats were first in this list, which became the dominant mode of transportation. Steamboats helped to reduce the actual cost of transportation in 1820-1860. Steamboats caused the colonization of the larger tributaries of rivers. Smaller tributaries were much smaller shallow, thus more expensive to navigate. This article also contains information and facts on early steamboats. This paper also analyzes 1850 cost data for a sample of 36 steamboats operating on five routes. The results indicate no economies or diseconomies of scale. Substantial differences in the cost per ton-mile are found between routes. These differences are largely explained by differences in capacity.

    Harrison, John F. C. “”The Steam Engine of the New Moral World”: Owenism and Education, 1817-1829.”” The Journal of British Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2. (May 1967): 76-98.

    Hunter, Louis C. “The Invention of the Western Steamboat.” The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 3, No. 2. (Nov. 1943): 201-220.

    This was by far the most elaborate source I found on my topic. The article describes how the steamboat is the first great American contribution to modern technology. Soon after the steamboat was invented, it was adopted for the primary source of river transportation. Before long, the technology of the steamboat traveled all around the globe. In 1811 the steamboat was introduced to New Orleans and several steamboats were put to work. The article goes on to talk about the low-pressure boiler, which was created by Fulton, and soon replaced. With new power steamboats became even more affordable and practical.

    Lynn, Martin “From Sail to Steam: The Impact of the Steamship Services on the British Palm Oil Trade with West Africa, 1850-1890.” The Journal of African History, Vol. 30, No. 2. (1989): 227-245.

    In the late nineteenth century the West African palm oil trade entered a period of difficulties, characterized mainly by a fall in prices from the early 1860s. Part of the reason for this lay in the introduction of regular steamship services between Britain and West Africa from 1852. As steam came to replace sail so the palm oil trade underwent major changes. These changes can be quantified fairly precisely. One effect of the introduction of steamboats was the concentration of the British side of the oil trade once again on Liverpool, its original center. Another effect was the increase in the number of West African ports involved in the trade. The most important impact was the increase in numbers of traders in oil trade from around 25 to some 150. The resulting increased competition in the trade led to amalgamations becoming increasingly common – a process that caused the formation of the African Association Ltd in 1889. It was also to provide the context for the pressure exerted by some traders for an increased colonial presence in the 1880s and 1890s.

    Mak, James; Walton, Gary M. “Steamboats and the Great Productivity Surge In River Transportation.” The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 32, No. 3. (Sep.1972): 619-640.

    This article emphasizes that steamboats increased colonization around rivers. Unsettled backwoods regions were turned into agricultural lands. Steamboats wiped out some forms of river and fright transportation while others, such as flatboating, remained competitive. This article also measures the productivity change in steam boating on western rivers during a period of western expansion. Because of the quicker transportation time of steamboats, the navigation season was extended. This allowed more products and/or people to travel.

    Nichols, Roger L. “Army Contributions to River Transportation, 1818-1825.” Military Affairs, Vol. 33, No. 1. (Apr. 1969): 242-249.

    This article brings up interesting topics on how the army helped contribute to various aspects of the United States. One example of army technological contributions is the famous steamboat Western Engineer, designed by Major Stephen Long. This boat was creative because it sat on the water rather than in it. This allowed for shallow water travel. Although Long did not create this idea, it was one of the first models to achieve any success. Long also moved the paddle wheels from the usual position amidships, to the stern. This allowed for narrow river travel.

    EffectivePapers.com is a professional annotated bibliography service which helps students with writing an annotated bibliography essay at affordable rates. Get a custom annotated bibliography online!

    How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated


    An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.


    Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority.

    Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

    First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

    Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

    Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.


    For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author's background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.


    Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library's Citation Management page .


    The following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 6th edition, 2010) for the journal citation.

    Waite, L. J. Goldschneider, F. K. & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review,51. 541-554.

    The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

    This example uses MLA style (MLA Handbook. 8th edition, 2016) for the journal citation.

    Waite, Linda J. et al. "Nonfamily Living and the Erosion of Traditional Family Orientations Among Young Adults." American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

    The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

    APA Style Guide: Annotated Bibliography

    Annotated Bibliography

    The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association does not provide instruction in creating an annotated bibliography. However, your professor may ask for one. Below is an example of an annotated bibliography. The annotated bibliography allows your professor to see the sources you will use in your final research paper. It shows that you have planned ahead by conducting research and gave thought to the information you will need to write a complete research paper. The annotations may summarize or evaluate the sources used. The references need to follow the APA rules for citations and the good news is you have your reference list complete before writing your paper!

    Remember, always follow your professor’s instructions when creating an annotated bibliography.

    • Last Updated: Sep 10, 2016 2:13 PM
    • URL: http://irsc.libguides.com/apa
    • Print Page

    dj disc jockey resume

    Dan’s main focus is to deliver a superior entertainment experience built around YOUR vision of YOUR event. As a professional entertainment director, disc jockey, and master of ceremonies, Dan is committed to assisting you in planning a celebration that exceeds the highest of expectations!

    Dan Breslin is a Five Star Silver Sound DJ .

    Check out one of Dan’s recent five-star reviews on WeddingWire.com!

    Thank You Notes & Letters:
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    Carsella Wedding – Sofitel Philadelphia – Click here to read
    Castaldo Wedding – Barn on Bridge – Click here to read
    Hunsberger Wedding – Loews Philadelphia Hotel – Click here to read
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    McVey Wedding – Columbia Station – Click here to read
    Harris Wedding – Mendenhall Inn – Click here to read
    Talvacchia Wedding – Crystal Tea Room – Click here to read
    Stebbins Wedding – Holiday Inn Select – Click here to read
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    Dan is third in a line of Silver Sound DJs, mentored by his brother and sister, both Silver Sound DJs before him. While Dan regularly entertains wedding receptions as a mainstay, he is well suited towards Bar/Bat Mitzvahs, School and College events. As a DJ of 11 years, Dan’s personal style is one of good humor and outgoing personality.

    Being versatile and able to please many different audiences, to read the crowd and predict what music will work in a given situation is what sets DJ Dan Breslin apart from the competition. Dan is an expert in mixing with smooth transitions from any generation to the present. He is considerate of requests made and has the uncanny ability to spontaneously mix the song in the format provided, when appropriate.

    Dan’s music library spans all time periods from Big Band to today’s Top 40, Dance & R&B. Dan will develop a music program and a timeline that works with your style and expectations for your event. If you’re not sure what you want for your event, feel confident that Dan’s experience and skills will give you a memorable party.

    Four JBL EON self-powered speakers, Bose L1 Compact system for cocktail hour and ceremonies, Denon DN-MC6000 Mixer-Controller, MacBook Pro system, LaCie 500GB Firewire hard drive with a 75,000 song database, Shure PGX Digital Wireless Handheld Wireless microphones, Apple iPod Nano

    Highlights from a Baywood Greens Wedding with DJ Dan Breslin

    Highlights from a Spring Hill Manor Wedding with DJ Dan Breslin

    Sixteen Chauvet COLORstrip Mini LED light bars, Caribbean blacklight effect, Martin Mania DC1 ambient water effect (video ),Chauvet Vue VI LED Moon Flower effect (video ), Chauvet Vue 1 LED Moon Flower effect (video ) supported by Ultimate Support TS-99B Telelock stands

    Specialty Lighting:
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    Dan’s customers experience non-stop dance floor action, hard hitting sounds, and musical talent. For younger audiences and parties, Dan is known to provide a fun and interactive performance with a great mix of music, making for a night all will remember.

    Voice Demo: Click here to hear Dan Breslin introduce a bridal party!

    Michigan DJs and DJ Services

    Looking just for Wedding DJs? Go to Michigan Wedding Slavin The Website. MWS lists disc jockeys for weddings by their Based In area. It's free to use, no logins, nothing to join.

    Wedding DJs and Mobile DJs

    Mobile means these Disc Jockeys bring their own DJ equipment and music to your event location, and can play popular dance music or a specific genre. DJ Entertainment for Weddings Dances Parties Graduations Proms Reunions Mitzvahs, Special Events.

    All Wedding DJs are Mobile DJs. But not every Mobile DJ is a Wedding DJ. Most Mobile Disc Jockeys don’t do every type of event. Some only do weddings, others just parties. Some like to teach dance steps or sing karaoke while DJ'ing. Some just play music, no announcements or talking. Some offer related services and packages in addition to DJ. So take a look and see who is for right for your event.

    DJ Eddie
    based in Metro Detroit. phone 810-343-0194. Professional DJ, Over 15 Years Experience. weddings, other events.

    DJ Matt Camron
    serving Metro Detroit. From the Channel 955 Bomb Squad, a mobile DJ with radio broadcast experience. school dances, graduations, parties, weddings.

    M.K. Entertainment
    serving Southeast Michigan. DJ service featuring club style sound and light show. weddings, coporate, benefits, school dances, parties.

    Best DJ Entertainment Service
    serving Metro Detroit. features one flat rate with most everything included. weddings, school dances, reunions, etc.

    Best Party DJ Productions
    Professional Michigan DJ service for your wedding, party or special event. With over 15 years in the business, we provide entertaiment for the Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb county areas.

    Evening Star DJ/Karaoke
    Serving Marquette County in the Upper Peninsula and surrounding areas. Weddings, Corporate Parties, School Dances, Holiday Parties, Class Reunions, Anniversary Parties, Graduation Parties, Birthday Parties, more. phone 906-475-7332.

    E.S.P. DJ & Karaoke Service (Endicott Sound Productions)
    serving Southeast Michigan. weddings, plus most other events and occasions.

    Party It Up
    DJ Service in Metro Detroit featuring DJ Keith and several other DJs for weddings, parties, bars. phone 248-361-2776.

    First Class Entertainment
    Entertainment for any occasion in Southeast Michigan. "We don’t just play music. We entertain!"

    Phoenix Entertainment – based in metro Detroit, Mobile DJs for weddings, parties events. Can also supply uplighting, photo booths and more.

    Beat Crazy DJ Entertainment
    Based in Northville, serving the Metro-Detroit area for over 20 years. Weddings, class reunions, teen parties, more. 248-875-3137.

    EPC Event Services – DJ Emcee Karaoke
    based in Waterford, MI. Our systems range from the top of the line 3000 watt 4-way surround sound system for a concert quality sound. We also have the best and highly trained experieced Master of Ceremony Party Host to interact with your guests along woth DJ/VJ technicians to man audio and video for continuous music and video activity for a video montage. 2000 watt systems, 1000 watt systems and basic systems are available for smaller events. Handheld and wireless mics are available along with special effects, such as haze, fog, bubbles or special effect lighting. visit website or phone 248-618-1100.

    Atlarge Sound & Lighting
    We are a Professional DJ Service based in Metro Detroit with over 15 years experience specializing in Wedding Receptions, Cabaret Style Parties, Ballroom & Hustle Affairs, Birthday Parties, Reunions, Anniversaries and Corporate Events. We also have a large inventory of sound & lighting equipment that we rent out and provide technical support for stage plays, bands, speaking engagements, conferences, festivals, nightclubs, open mics, DJs, schools etc. phone 313-657-1283.

    Serrasoundz Entertainment
    DJ Service serving the Metro Detroit Area since 2001. Music for all ages and all occasions?from the 50's through today's top dance hits. Lighting and fog available. Our playlist or yours. Backup equipment. No set up fees. 586-871-7302.

    Celebration DJs
    Celebration DJs has been providing energetic entertainment to countless weddings, company events, and family parties for over 19 years in the Southeast Michigan area. The owner of the company, Chris Donley, has built a solid reputation as a fun and professional DJ and Master of Ceremonies by using energy, personality, and great music to take your party to the next level and make it a true Celebration!

    Memory Maker DJs
    Full Service DJ and Video company specialize in weddings and corporate events. based in Troy, MI (Metro Detroit). phone 248-619-1790.

    Encore Music (Encore DJ)
    Grand Rapids DJ service covering lower Michigan. wedding receptions and parties.

    DJ Chris Clark
    serving Metro Detroit. weddings, mitzvahs, parties. also has karaoke & magic show. 248-877-4291. facebook

    Office Party DJs
    based in Metro Detroit. phone 248-707-0690. Specializing in large and small office events, block parties, class reunions, weddings and corporate functions.

    Sound Dog Productions
    DJ Entertainment Service based in Metro Detroit. Weddings (specialty), Bar and Bat Mitzvah's, corporate events, class reunions, proms and picnics.

    Fuzion-Tech Entertainment
    Fuzion-Tech is a small start up company tailoring to your every entertainment need. Services include audio for bands/artists, Dj music for parties/clubs, and karaoke for bars/events. If you're looking for premium sound then Fuzion-Tech is for you.

    Saturn’s Diamond Entertainment
    DJ & Karaoke Service serving Metro Detroit. phone 586 709-9576 or 248 909-4084. Multiple DJs available for all types of events. Every DJ & Karaoke event includes special effect lights. Saturn is now also offering Balloon Twisting, Face Painting and Mascot Characters at your event. facebook

    based in Romulus. Offering the finest Wedding DJ service at the best price. Complete Wedding packages under $600 includes special effects lighting and thousands of songs from yesterday & today! Over a decade of Wedding DJ experience.

    Dance Pro DJ Service
    A full service disc jockey company (including karaoke) based in Whitmore Lake, Southeast Michigan, and will travel to just about anywhere in Michigan. Weddings, parties and other events. toll free number 877-393-2623

    A-Team Productions
    Professional Disc Jockey Service based in Macomb. Weddings, corporate parties, school dances, anniversary parties, graduation parties, fundraisers, more. 586-907-4636.

    Soul Deep
    Metro Detroit's premier soul DJ entertainment service. A unique alternative to the typical Top 40 DJ! Your guests will get down to our expansive collection of Original '60s & '70s Vinyl: Soul, Funk R&B, and more! facebook

    Diversity Entertainment
    "The Doo Wop DJ's" specializing in Classic CAR SHOWS and events. Serving all of Michigan, bringing you the very best in 50's & 60's DJ Entertainment. Authentic costumes, unique contests, top notch knowledge of the music and most of all an undying love for classic cars. "Professional DJ's providing real fun for over 12 years". Click our name to visit our website. 989-846-2618.

    Bargain DJ Entertainment
    based in the northern MI. Your engagement is a special time that you should enjoy to the fullest. Don't spend it stressing out about your wedding details. We'll discuss all your ideas at length, then design a plan with a variety of options for you to consider. Stress-Free Wedding Planning Begins Now!

    Gen-X Productions
    DJ, MC and Karaoke service for Metro Detroit. weddings, parties, bars. phone 248-763-5428.

    Malibu Entertainment
    based in Fraser, serving Southeast Michigan. Disc Jockey & karaoke service for all occasions. phone 586-855-0138.

    Mobile Sound Unlimited DJ Service and Karaoke
    Phone 248-471-7065. "Your Entertainment Specialists since 1978" Serving YOU in Southeast Michigan as the longest working Disc Jockey Duo with customized service to your tastes for most occasions!

    Donald Schuster Productions (DJ Shine)
    Disc Jockey Service based in Metro Detroit, wedding receptions and parties.

    Optimum Sound Productions
    Mobile DJ Service based in Metro Detroit. weddings, proms, school dances, parties, special events. call 800-980-6211.

    Music by Mark
    Professional DJ Service featuring Mark Hudy, based in Metro Detroit. weddings, class reunions, parties, more. phone 313-736-0759.

    DJ Poppy – info on facebook
    based in Holland (West MI). I'll play your music at your volume, at your event for family and friends in a ballroom, local social center or at your home. I prefer Latin and Afro-Cuban music, with a bit of hip hop mashup, but I am happy to play your style. My reasonable rate starts at $200 for a 2-hour-party, including an interview to prepare the playlist and setting up my equipment. Call 616-558-2488.

    Rusch Entertainment DJs
    based in East MI. We provide DJ entertainment throughout Michigan specializing in weddings, corporate events and anything else that needs a fun DJ and great music! Please call us today at 800-439-5319 so we can discuss your musical needs!

    In-Tune Music Worx
    based in Rochester Hills, MI. Metro Detroit's premier wedding and special event mobile DJ service. phone 888-353-3399.

    Metro Music Entertainment
    Metro Music DJs have performed at over 10,000 events all over the state of Michigan and we understand that your wedding reception is the most important celebration of your life. We truly care about your special day and it is our goal to make it a "worry free, stress free" event. Metro Music owners Chris French and Rick Sadlowski have spent a combined 40 years turning "music into memories that last a life time." 248-246-2287.

    Mike Staff Productions Wedding DJs
    based in Metro Detroit, many DJs serving Southeast Michigan. Weddings only. Founded by radio personality Mike Staff.

    Channel 955 DJs
    based in Metro Detroit. school dances, graduations, family nights, radio parties, weddings, etc.

    Night and Day Productions
    based in Metro Detroit. weddings, parties, school dances, etc. very large music library.

    Smok’n Musicn’ Light’n
    Karaoke and DJ services in southeast lower Michigan.

    Live Audio Entertainment
    DJ & Karaoke Services based in Redford, MI. phone 313-520-5204. weddings, dances, parties and other events.

    DJ Zack Daniels
    based in Metro Detroit, available for special events such as weddings and as a dance club dj.

    Flipside Entertainment featuring DJ Chris Lee
    based in East-Mid Michigan. weddings, school dances, graduations, corporate and private parties, class reunions, etc.

    Identification Confirmed (D.J. Classified 989 United Identification Confirmed)
    Disc Jockey service in mid Michigan that provides quality service in entertainment that you can afford. We can accommodate all genres of music for all types of events, for more information visit our website or call us at 989.400.SHOW

    J & J Entertainment
    DJ & Karaoke service based in Metro Detroit serving Southeast Michigan, weddings to parties.

    Sound Productions
    disc jockey service based in Clare, also has music videos. weddings, class reunions, proms, etc.

    Soundblasters DJ/KJ Service
    in Northeast Michigan. 20 years + professional wedding and private party DJ service. We use Bose L1 equipment. visit website ot call 989-724-7868.

    Night Owl Entertainment
    based in Brighton, MI. Provide quality service, entertainment, and music to accommodate all ages. Focus on quality and our customer's satisfaction. As a result a high percentage of our business is from repeat customer's and referrals. Serving all Michigan communities.

    Active Entertainment
    We are Mid-Michigan's only 5 star rated DJ Company through Wedding Wire. We provide a great show with top notch customer service & flexibility at a competitive price. Please call us anytime for a free consultation and estimate at 989-992-1001.

    serving West Michigan. Over 86,000 tunes brought to every event. weddings, coporate, school.

    Upfront Entertainment
    DJ and Karaoke service for the greater Flint Area. "Both my libraries contain over 65,000 titles and growing." weddings, parties.

    Prime Time Entertainment DJ Service
    based in Metro Detroit, serving Macomb, Oakland, Wayne and St Clair County.

    Ground Zero Productions
    Full service Sound Reinforcement / Video Projection and DJ Services. Serving the Southeastern Michigan. (586) 322-9053.

    Mitchell Girt Disc Jockey
    DJ Service serving all of Michigan. Located in Northern Michigan. Will go anywhere!

    Starburst Productions
    Disc Jockey Ron Martinez has been serving the Metro Detroit area since 1986. 734-326-0728.

    Pluister Entertainment, Inc.
    Has been serving Northern Michigan, (including Beaver and Mackinac Islands) for nearly 30 years. Excellence in Custom Reception Entertainment.

    Music Box Productions
    based in Southeast Michigan. weddings, corporate and private events.

    DJ Service in Metro Detroit. Wide range of music from house and dance to classic rock and cultural. outdoor concerts to weddings and lounges.

    Ken Shelton Productions
    The DJ that will move your crowd. Mid Michigan’s top wedding DJ service. all digital music.

    Tim ‘DJ TJ’ Johnson – based in Metro Detroit. "Locally, I host, DJ (and sometimes teach) at West Coast Wednesday, co-hosting the monthly Second Saturday Swing. My experience also includes providing music editing services for contests, routines and performances."

    XSL Productions
    DJ and VJ service based in Rochester Hills, available for all of Michigan, specializing in Teen Events. Mitzvahs, school dances, sweet sixteens and any other teen functions. Have music videos.

    JD Entertainment
    Disc Jockey and Video Service for Metro Detroit. 800-223-2401 or 586-468-9560. facebook

    The Millennium Entertainment Group
    Mid Michigan’s premier full time staff of wedding professionals. DJ's, photographer's, coordinator's, videography, and more.

    Experience Electronica DJs
    10+ years experience – Proudly serving all of Northern Michigan, and Mackinac Island.

    Chris O’Brien Productions
    Based in Grand Rapids area. “professional dj and karaoke service that covers all of mid and lower Michigan.” weddings, special events, parties.

    DJ’s North
    serving all of northern Michigan and Mackinac Island. When the guests say "what a great party", and the bride and groom say "it was just what we wanted" you know you hired DJ’s North Disc Jockey Service for your wedding reception in Northern Michigan.

    Jambalaya Sound and Light
    Serving greater Ann Arbor area for weddings, parties, and other events. Reliable, professional, affordable, danceable, and fun.

    Stylish Sounds
    serving Northwest Michigan. Disc Jockey services for just about any event such as but not limited to: Weddings, school dances, birthday parties, christmas parties, reunions and even small concerts.

    D.J. & Music, Inc.
    Specializing in Wedding Receptions and private parties. Serving the Metro-Detroit area since 1981. phone: 313-295-6810 and 734-658-8892.

    Tony's DJ Services
    Featuring Tony Arini, for Southeast Michigan. After an absence of almost 15 years, Tony’s DJ Services is back! We are ready to provide you with the best music and the best value for your special event. Tony says: "If you want a real dance party for your next event, book us today!"

    Pro D.J. Services, Inc.
    for Metro Detroit. Pro D.J. Services employs a team of professional & hard working entertainers. Call us today to schedule a free no obligation appointment to meet with one of our representatives.

    Digital Music DJ Productions
    serving the Mid-Michigan area for your music needs. Offering the latest in pro audio and lighting equipment with 1000s of songs to choose from.

    Divine Entertainment
    All Venues, All occasions, over 15 years experience.

    Enchanted Evenings DJ Service
    serving Southeast Michigan. husband & wife team, specializing in weddings.

    Mark Evans DJ Entertainment
    serving Macomb & Oakland counties, specializing in weddings and family functions.

    Electro System Pro DJ Service
    We service the Northern Michigan area. Base out of Traverse City, MI. phone 231-276-6131.

    Michigan DJ Service
    We have rates from $350, offer Bose Audio and a great Light Show. weddings and events, based in Metro Detroit, ph# 586-446-8499.

    DJ Sandbar (Cody Kimball)
    Serving Port Huron (St. Clair County), Kalamazoo, and surrounding areas in Michigan. I am a DJ with over 5 years of experience, with weddings, parties, graduations, and even on the radio! Services include impressive light show, music, announcing / MC ing, and tuxedo for formal events Wide selection of music, everything from Dance to Pop to Techno to Rock Rap and Reggae.

    Majestic Mobile Music
    Based in Metro Detroit area, owner Barbara Betrus. Service area Mid-MI, Metro Detroit. weddings, mitzvahs, proms, outdoor and other events.

    Platinum Sounds
    serving Detroit and surrounding areas.

    Platinum Mix Productions
    serving Metro Detroit. weddings, other events.

    In Play Productions
    based in Southeast Michigan. Saturdays only. weddings, school dances, corporate, parties.

    Tunes By Rick
    Wedding specialist for all of west Michigan. ph# 616-583-0556.

    DJ Crashers
    based in Lake Orion, MI. DJs, Photo Booth Rental, Uplighting and Videography for the Metro Detroit area. phone 248-990-2577. facebook

    Tunes By T
    Mobile DJ Service based in the Lansing, Mid-MI area. Wedding receptions, school dances, parties, sporting events.

    Stealth DJ’s
    for Southeast Michigan. parties, weddings, high school dances, college parties, etc.

    based in Orleans, Michigan (between Belding & Ionia), available statewide. DJ Service, karaoke, event rental, event planning.

    Sound Investment
    based in Ann Arbor. weddings and other events.

    Elite Entertainment
    serving Metro Detroit. DJ and digital video service. weddings only.

    Boogie Brothers Productions
    serving Metro Detroit. DJs for weddings, corporate, parties, events.

    DJ Rick "Go Ugly Early Mobile Entertainment"
    We offer up-lighting, professional X-Laser RGB animation laser system (venue must fit FDA regulations), black light, stage lights to PA with wireless microphones for announcements. GoBo lighting available. Music by your schedule and selection: Cake cutting, dance with parent, first dance and so forth. We offer a formal contract; we’re insured and use licensed music only. Veteran Owed. visit website or call 734-344-9714 or 734-223-6327. facebook

    Celebration Sounds
    based in Eaton Rapids, available to all of Mid-Michigan. weddings, other events.

    Jack Brown DJ / Entertainment
    based in Highland, available for Oakland County and Metro Detroit area. weddings.

    DJ Sounds
    based in Pinckney area. weddings, school dances, parties, etc.

    Complete Music
    serving West Michigan, Ann Arbor and surrounding communities. DJ entertainment service for weddings, mitzvah’s, reunions, corporate parties, school functions, etc.

    Ambassador Entertainment
    for Southeast Michigan. DJs and karaoke services for all occasions including school dances.

    Nightlife Entertainment
    DJ/MC music services for any occasion, based in Great Lakes Bay Region (Mid Michigan), serving all of Michigan. Also provides special events planning and coordination services, lighting, band rental, more. phone 989-781-5700.

    Michael’s Music
    based in Metro Detroit. weddings, coporate, school dances.

    CDJ Entertainment
    for Southeast Michigan. DJ service with over 9,000 cd’s.

    Muckles Entertainment LLC
    DJ Emmitt Muckles and other DJ’s to Rock Your Party in Metro Detroit and Southeast Michigan.

    The Spin Doctor
    based in Metro Detroit. weddings, etc.

    A+ Digital DJs
    based in Alpena and serves all of Northern Michigan. weddings, school dances & proms.

    Pure Energy Productions
    DJ/Karaoke service based in Sturgis, MI. insured, over a decade of experience in the entertainment industry. Weddings, school dances, parties, corporate.

    Scottie Alexander Entertainment
    based in Brighton. DJ and Karaoke service. Weddings, special events, bars, etc.

    Jay Samborn Entertainment
    based in Bay City. DJ and Karaoke service. Weddings, gameshows, bars.

    J S Entertainment
    Serving Southeastern Michigan. Mobile DJ and Karaoke services.

    Mario&’s Music Company
    based in Clinton Township. band and DJ, weddings.

    Eschmann Entertainment
    Professional and Classy Disc Jockey Services for ANY event. Serving Southern Michigan and Northern Ohio for over a decade, Eschmann Entertainment personally works with each client to customize every aspect of their special day. based in Canton, MI. phone 248-259-1604.

    Northern Michigan DJ.com
    Serving the Traverse City, Ludington, and Petoskey areas with full-time professional service. Serving couples since 1979.

    DJ ZAH (MyWiseGuys)
    Davison area DJ/Karaoke Service for weddings and parties.

    DJ Joey K
    located in Allen Park, MI, provides services to the Detroit Metro surrounding areas. "I provide mobile DJ, lighting and emcee services for weddings, school dances, class reunions, birthday parties, holiday parties, graduation parties, retirement parties, corporate events and private parties."

    Don Johnsons’ Music Madness
    based in Algonac (East Michigan). Mobile DJ service for weddings, graduations, banquets, corporate parties, class reunions, etc.

    John’s Jams
    Professional Disc Jockey providing Southeast Michigan with recorded music for all occasions.

    Boes Mobile Sound
    Mobile DJ service in Metro Detroit.

    Music Time Tunes DJ service
    serving all of Northern Michigan see us on our web page.

    Ace Entertainment
    Metro Detroit. DJ for weddings, school dances, graduations, reunions, corporate, most occasions.

    Epic Entertainment, Inc
    based in Utica (Metro Detroit). DJ services, more.

    Solid Gold Sound
    based in Metro Detroit. professional disc jockey service. weddings.

    Thomas & Thomas (Sound Entertainment, Inc.)
    Professional Mobile Disc Jockey Service based in Metro Detroit serving Southeastern Michigan. weddings, corporate, events.

    Shea Sounds
    based in Metro Detroit. weddings, corporate, parties.

    Nightwatch Productions
    based in Lansing. DJ Service for weddings, other events.

    Superior Sounds
    based in Clinton Twp. music and lights for all occasions.

    based in Macomb Township. weddings, school dances, parties, more. has video projection.

    The Party Doctor
    based in Eastpointe. weddings, private parties.

    The DJ Guy
    DJ & Karaoke Service based in Howell. weddings and other occasions.

    An Ultimate Sound
    based in Metro Detroit. weddings, school functions, graduations, etc.

    Hotmix Entertainment
    mobile DJ company, Lansing and Metro Detroit, operates large sound and light shows, lasers.

    Fine Edge Productions
    based in Metro Detroit. DJ service for weddings and all types of events.

    SuperDaveDJ.com LLC
    based in Clinton Twp. "strives to create a family-friendly atmosphere, plays only clean music".

    Electric Horizons
    Mobile Disc Jockey serving the Lansing area. weddings, parties, dances.

    Digital Productions DJ Service
    based in the 313 area code, serving southeast Michigan.

    Mobile Rhythm DJ & Karaoke
    based in the 734 area code. weddings, school, corporate, more.

    Sunshine Entertainment
    in 313 area code. "mansion or a mosh pit, first class or primal bash".

    D.J. Kurt Lewis
    Mobile DJ based in Howell. weddings and parties.

    Jigsaw Jams
    A DJ Service serving Flint MI, Weddings, School Dances, Birthday’s, and any event requiring a DJ.

    1, 2 Step Entertainment
    DJ Service in Metro Detroit for Weddings, Corporate Events, Mitzvahs, Sweet 16's, Holiday Parties, Fundraisers, more.

    Music Xpress DJ Entertainment
    Based in Wixom, also has karaoke. Weddings, birthday parties, charity events, special occasions.

    Joe Cornell Weddings
    DJ Service based in Metro Detroit. weddings. phone 248-356-6000.

    DJ Yoly
    in 248 area code. weddings and parties.

    DJ Lupe
    in 313 area code. all occasions.

    Mary Ann Productions
    disc jockey entertainment in Metro Detroit.

    David Golembiewski
    Disc Jockey serving all of Macomb, Oakland and Wayne counties.

    Loco Joe Entertainment (djdiscjockey.com)
    DJ Entertainment based in Metro Detroit, available worldwide. weddings, parties, or any other event that requires music and fun.

    Encore Event Group DJ – Encore Party DJs + Encore Wedding DJs
    Serves Michigan & offers Modern DJs, MCs, & lighting packages for weddings, bars, parties, more. facebook

    J and J DJ Service LLC
    serving the thumb area of Michigan. full service mobile DJ providing music and lighting for your party needs, weddings, karaoke, holiday, birthday, school, etc.

    H & J Entertainment
    DJ and Karaoke for Mid-MI. parties, bars, weddings.

    Masters of Ceremony Productions
    Wedding DJ Entertainment Specialists based in Farmington Hills (Metro Detroit), serving all of Michigan.

    John Correll Professional DJ Services
    Serving Southwest Michigan over the past 25 years. wedding receptions, pageants, company events, more.

    Harbor View Entertainment
    DJ Service serving the Traverse City, Northern Michigan area.

    Entertainment Solutions of Michigan
    Full service DJ/MC service based in Mid Michigan. wedding, private party, school dance, corporate event.

    BigFoot DJs
    based in Port Huron / Flint areas. weddings, private parties, corporate events, night clubs.

    Your Special Night (Michael A Sinelli)
    "offers professional Disc Jockey and Video services for weddings, corporate functions, seminars, graduation parties and anniversary parties."

    Motor City HDJ
    Metro Detroit's High Definition DJ Service.

    All Night DJs (Sean McDonnell)
    based in Metro Detroit.

    Bee Entertainment
    DJ company based in Metro Detroit.

    New Reaction Sound, Inc.
    A complete DJ music and karaoke service based in Canton, MI. "Our company doesn't just play music, we entertain! We play the music you want, not just the music the DJ wants to play." phone 313-525-7878. weddings, special events, bars.

    TnT Entertainment Karaoke & DJ Service
    based in Port Huron, MI. phone 810-357-5775. "Let us put the BANG in your special event" facebook

    Celebrity Productions
    Mobile DJ Service based in Coopersville, West Michigan. phone 616-384-DJ4U. weddings, school dances, graduation parties, birthday parties, other events.

    DJ Emmo – based in Ann Arbor area, info on facebook

    Phat Music Entertainment – info on facebook
    DJ company based in Waterford (Metro Detroit).

    Switek Entertainment
    based in Grand Rapids. DJs plus Full-Service Wedding, Event, and Party Package Provider.

    United Productions
    An event services and planning company in the 248 area code has DJs/MCs, karaoke hosts.

    epc – Entertainment Production Co.
    based in Waterford (Metro Detroit). offers DJ, VJ, Karaoke services, more.

    Latin Image Entertainment
    DJ Service based in Metro Detroit. American and Latin music. weddings to parties & clubs. call George at 734-231-7973. call Salvador Sid at 734-231-5859.

    Club DJs and House Music DJs

    For Dance Clubs, Nightclubs, Party Bars, shows and festivals.

    DJ Maestro – The Hustle and The Line Master from metro Detroit.

    All Digital Club DJ Services – for southeast Lower Michigan. also has equipment rentals.

    DJ Ace Franco (Franco Entertainment) – club and mix DJ based in Warren (Metro Detroit). hip-hop, rock, top 40.

    DJ Chrome (Fadi Yousif) – Detroit. Top 40, House, Hip-Hop, Rock, Mashups & Electro. info on facebook

    DJ Donovan Tate – from Metro Detroit. Live mix and remixes. Added producing tracks to his resumé along with doing shows nationally. facebook

    Kenneth Thomas – Metro Detroit and national. progressive trance. profile

    DJ CAPTN20 – Club DJ in Metro Detroit.

    Dangerous Drew Productions – Club DJ and Mobile Night Club Experience in West Michigan.

    DJ Ice – Detroit. info on facebook
    DJ Jenna Brown – metro Detroit. info on facebook

    DJ Jessi Kay – Detroit, info on facebook

    DJ Lena (DJ Sir Lena) – based in Detroit. house music.

    DJ Tish-Da-Ish ("Def-Kon III") – Detroit. DJ & producer. hip hop, pop, beats.

    Dj Tom T – in Metro Detroit. versatile styles.

    Ray DJTangaray Ridgeway – Detroit. DJ & producer. hip hop, r&b.

    Detroit Deejays (Detroit DJ’s) – organizing and sharing music with other DJs. info on facebook

    SpinUtopia Detroit – SpinUtopia is mostly electronic music and mixmasters. link is to the Detroit site. listen to music and check out list of Spinners, DJs, events, more.

    Michigan DJs Listings are Exclusively for DJs and DJ Services Based in Michigan

    This page offers free linked listings with descriptions for DJs actually located in Michigan. Those out of state but serving Michigan won’t be listed on this page.

    If you’re looking for a DJ in Michigan, check out many DJs and compare. If you’re a Disc Jockey or VJ with a web site, make it easy for people to go straight to your info.


    Wow. What makes a good movie? What makes a good song?

    People have different tastes in what is "good." In general, we can say a good DJ or KJ has an entertaining show, and if he or she is at a bar, gets a good crowd, which makes a lot of money for the bar.

    How do you do that? I personally like to have high energy shows, where there is never dead air, people are encouraged to participate, and it just feels like something is always going on, never boring. I like to be a little vulgar, obnoxious, loud, insulting, and flirty. That may not be the best thing to bring to the old folks home, or a children’s party. It is aimed at 20 somethings.

    One of the ways I make my show work is to have control of my sound and equipment at all times. A Good DJ with bad equipment can become a bad DJ very quickly.

    Some KJ’s use props, like funny hats, some do trivia contests, or use any other number of gimmicks and games. Generally speaking, if the people come back week after week, you are doing a good job.

    Since it is related, I also want to answer the question;

    "What makes a good karaoke show?"

    What kind of equipment do I need?

    This is a very basic explanation of DJ equipment, and what each thing does.

    I am going to break this down into five Audio groups and two Video groups. Audio – Sources, Mixing, Processing, Amplification, and Speakers. Video – Video Source Selector. and HDMI Scaler. Finally, we’ll briefly go over Media Controllers .

    Sources – Sources are anything that creates a signal which can be turned into sound. A Computer (with a sound card) is a source for music and karaoke music. A Microphone is a source for voice. An iPod is a source of music. A CD Player is a source for music, a karaoke disc player is a source for karaoke (and usually can be used for regular music also). Turntables are sources of music. A DVD player is a source. A musical instrument, like a guitar, is a source. Sources create very weak electrical signals that if amplified, can be converted into sound.

    Mixing – A Mixer takes inputs from different sources, and allows you to match the volumes so they sound pleasing to the human ear. Sometimes we also use a mixer to choose which source to listen to. Finally, a mixer will allow us to gradually reduce the signal from one source while increasing signal from another source, in a controlled fashion. That is part of the actual art of "mixing."

    Processing – This is not usually necessary when DJ’ing, but is recommended for karaoke and most live sound systems. There are several different ways to process a signal, but the most common form for karaoke is adding reverb (or echo) to a voice signal. Reverb and Echo are commonly referred to as "effects." Sometimes you want to make sure that a sudden loud noise from a microphone can not damage your speakers or amps. Compressors and Limiters are used for that. They are also a form of signal processing. There is also a signal processor to help eliminate feedback. The only one you absolutely need for karaoke is reverb. Many mixers include what’s known as a send and return. This function "sends" the voice (or any) signal out to a processor unit, and allows for mixing in the amount of Reverb you want "returned" to the mix.

    Amplification – Once your different signals have been mixed, matched, and processed, you need to increase the amount of energy from your weak signal so that it is ready to go to the speakers.

    Speakers – Speakers take an electrical signal and turn it into sound. The bigger the electrical signal, the louder the sound.

    Video Source Selector – This is a device that takes multiple Video inputs, usually S-Video or Component, and allows you to press a button to pick which one get’s sent out to the TV. You can buy these at Radio Shack and Best Buy. to name a few. If you use a PC for karaoke, and also want to be able to use a Karaoke Disk Player, you will need a Video Source Selector. Or you could find a TV that accepts multiple sources, run two wires, and then change the input on the TV. Not really feasible with multiple TVs though, in a bar for instance.

    For a very good tutorial (with pictures) on the different types of Video connectors, Try http://www.hardwaresecrets.com/article/157.

    HDMI Scaler – You may not need an HDMI Scaler. If you are not playing karaoke or any kind of video, you do not need an HDMI Scaler. If your computer does not have an HDMI output, (or has an HDMI output as well as other Video outputs) you may not need an HDMI scaler.

    HDMI scalers convert HDMI graphics to S-Video and/or component graphics. If you have a newer Computer (Especially a laptop), the Video output is probably in HDMI. HDMI wires are very expensive, especially longer ones. (If you need them, however, try http://www.svideo.com/ ) To split HDMI to go to several TV’s is also very expensive. Most Video Selectors do not yet include HDMI as an input. Karaoke Graphics don’t really need to be in super High Definition. Many older TV’s (Like those found in bars) don’t have HDMI inputs at all, so will need a component video. For all these reasons, I recommend converting your HDMI to component, and saving yourself money and aggravation. I bought mine at http://www.svideo.com/

    Media Controllers – Media Controllers connect to your computer, and control some aspect of your DJ software. At minimum they usually will include a play/pause button, a Cue button, pitch bend, loop controls, and a wheel for controlling the position of the virtual "needle" on the record. The advantage to using a media controller is you gain much more control over the way music is played. It is essential if you plan on mixing.

    There are many different manufacturers of these controllers. They often include a "lite" version of some DJ software. Serato, which is DJ software, uses actual turntables along with special index vinyl records as a controller. If you are not going to be a club style DJ, you probably don’t need a media controller.

    Simple enough, right? Now to confuse you even more, many pieces of equipment available on the market combine the functions of two or more of these things.

    For instance, There are mixers which include built in Reverb effects. There are mixers that also amplify the signal so you can go straight to the speakers. Those are called "Powered Mixers". There are Powered Mixers which also include Reverb Effects! There are speakers with built in Amplifiers! There are also "karaoke amplifiers" that control microphones, effects, and amplify signal all in one. (I highly recommend staying away from those)

    So how do you choose which way to go? You need to really think about what you are going to do with this equipment, and decide what is convenient for you! To help with that, I am listing some advantages and drawbacks below.

    You should buy the best you can afford to invest! The sound is one of the 3 things that makes a great karaoke show. If you can’t hook up your home stereo and DVD player, just give up now. You need to be good at this, or there’s no point!

    Speakers. I used to own nothing but JBL. A few years ago I started using B-52 three-ways. Samson, Mackie, Black Widow, Cerwin Vega, Bose, they all make some nice stuff too, there are lots of great speakers out there, but these below are the ones I personally have used in the past.

    1. JBL JRX112 or JRX115 Speakers really good for small rooms.
    2. B-52 SL-315 for medium sized rooms, your average bar. I bought these speakers because they were made in America, other DJ’s on the forums said the customer service was excellent, and they got great reviews for their sound. When I ordered them from a distributor, I was told there was a six year warranty! Six years! That’s unheard of! It is therefore sort of disappointing that I should warn you, I have had a problem with B-52 not supporting their Warranty. I ordered my speakers through an Authorized Dealer, and they were drop-shipped from the factory. There were no Serial Numbers on the Speakers, nor could I find a Serial Number on any of the paperwork. After a few months of use, a Dust cover came loose on one of the woofers, and had to be replaced. I called for an RMA, and B-52 directed me to an authorized service center. The Service Center (A Third Party) could not authenticate my speakers as being in warranty, even when calling the manufacturer directly. So I had to pay for the repair out of pocket. Calling the manufacturer’s customer service line did not get me anywhere. I ended up with a repair part that was not from the factory, which if they ever intended on honoring my warranty, would have voided it. I still find the sound quality to be excellent. I have no problem using these speakers, and even though I am using new speakers from QSC, I am keeping these as backups.
    3. JBL M-Pro for larger venues, outside venues. (M-Pro’s are Out of Production, but JBL is definitely a good speaker. See the website for new speaker lines.)
    4. JBL Eon G2 powered speakers for small to medium rooms, with built in amp! (EON G2 is out of Production, but there are new speakers in the EON series)
    5. I just bought a pair of QSC K-12’s (Powered speakers). I’ve been using them for about 4 Months now, and I love them! They are much lighter than the B-52s I was using, are powered, and rated at 1,000 Watts Each! Great sound, Good Low End Response, and I am very happy with them.
    • Amplifiers.
    1. I highly recommend the QSC PLX2 series. I own the QSC 3402 and used it without a problem for years.
    2. I have used and trust the Crown CE2000 (Discontinued)
    3. The Crown XLS602 is a pretty solid amp

    I now use powered speakers, and no longer use a separate amplifier. I have kept my QSC 3402 just in case of emergency.

    • Mixers
    1. Denon. I love the Denon DNX500. This is my main mixer. I had to replace my first one because I pressed some of the microphone on/off buttons too hard, and basically destroyed them. Once I learned to use a more gentle hand, this never happened again. Still, an expensive lesson. I highly recommend this Mixer.
    2. Rane MLM 42 is what I use for my microphone mixing. It is perfect for karaoke applications with up to 4 Microphones, and if you use the Denon Mixer above as your main mixer, you can use 5 Microphones total!
    3. Rane MP 44 Club Mixer. If I could afford it, this is what I would have. This is the top-end!
    4. Numark 200FX mixer with built in effects. (Out of Production) When I first started, this is the mixer I used. It was much less expensive than the other models listed above, and is very useful for Karaoke due to the fact that all 4 channels can be used with microphones, as well as line inputs. However, in my experience, they did not last as long before needing to be replaced. Numark has a new model, the C3FX which is very similar. I have no direct experience with this new model! (If anyone out there can give me some reviews, I’ll post them) If you decide to go with this mixer, I recommend keeping a spare on hand. It’s worth mentioning that at the time I write this, the Numark model is $299 and they are $150 less expensive than the DNX500 from Denon. It is also worth mentioning that even though I had to replace these mixers when they failed, I kept on buying them due to their being uniquely suited for Karaoke shows. In order to get the same functionality, I needed to combine a Denon DNX500 mixer, a Rane MLM 42 Mixer, and an external Effects unit. The combined cost of those three was more than triple the cost of the Numark. I personally go with reliability over convenience and cost.
    5. If you are going to be running karaoke and not DJ’ing at all, another possible solution is the Behringer UB1202FX Mixer with Built In Effects. This mixer is lightweight, will easily fit in most laptop bags alongside your laptop, has 4 mic inputs and a stereo input, and has the built in effects mentioned above. Paired with some powered speakers, this could be a very inexpensive and portable solution for a karaoke show.
    • Effects/Reverb
    1. Behringer Virtualizer Pro – I like it a lot.
    2. A lot of people swear by the miniverb.
    • Microphones
    1. I like the Shure Mics. They are relatively inexpensive, an SM58 is perfect for a show, it is directional, meaning you have to sing in to the top of the mic. That helps reduce feedback. The SM48 is a less expensive alternative.
    2. I used to run Gemini Wireless mics. but they changed the model I liked, and the replacement crackles when someone gets too loud.
    3. I now Use the VocoPro 4 set of wireless mics, which is cheap, but does the job. You can not select what channels are used, so if someone else is on your frequency, you are down a microphone. This has never happened to me yet, but in theory it is certainly possible.
    4. I also have a Shure PGX2 and PGX4 With an SM58 head on it. This was very expensive, so I only let sober people I know are responsible use this mic.
    5. When buying wireless mics, always go with UHF, never ever VHF!
    6. If I could afford it, I would get all my mics from Sennheiser .
    • Cables.
    1. Monster makes a decent cable, HOSA did too. (Stay away from Monster’s Mic/XLR cables though.) The real reason you buy these two brands is that if you are fortunate enough to have a Guitar Center or even a Sam Ash around you, you can take a defective cable in, and walk out with a warranty replacement free!
    • CD/CDG/MP3 players
    1. The industry standard was the JVC (or RSQ knock off) 3 drawer CDG player for a long time.
    2. I use a Numark CDN25+G dual player. (Out of Production) It works better for me. Allows you to mix using CDs as well as karaoke. This is not a top of the line unit, but it is functional. You have to learn about pitch to change the key, since there is not a standard step-down pitch control, but a slider. I have had to replace the LCD displays three times now, due to the LED backlights burning out. This is not necessarily a simple repair, but if you feel comfortable with it, is worth the hassle in my opinion.
    3. Vocopro makes a lot of karaoke players, my experience with the one wasting away in my closet is that it is too slow to load a disk. The CDG-8900 looks promising though (and very similar to the Numark unit). If anyone has experience with this unit, please let me know your experience with it.
    4. If you plan on DJ’ing a lot, the Denon Dual CD players are awesome, though they don’t play karaoke, there are several models that play mp3 disks as well as standard CDs. I almost always used one of these in the strip clubs.
    5. There are lots of MP3 smart media players out there, Some have their own internal hard drives, some connect using USB, it gets crazy. Since I already have the computer for karaoke, I run my DJ music on the computer as well. If you are thinking of getting a smart media player, make sure you can try it out first, as they are expensive, and can be complicated to use.
    • The Computer!

    This isn’t a simple list. I built my own computer, using an Intel CPU, and motherboard. You will have to do what is best for you. I do have some recommendations though.

    1. Use separate hard drives for your operating system, karaoke collection, and DJ music. (Note: The exception here is if you need just a few hundred songs to use as filler when using the Karaoki software from PCDJ, you can safely store that on either your karaoke drive, or the system drive)
    2. Get a Sound Card that supports multiple stereo outputs, like internal:M-Audio, Echo Audio, or External: Traktor Audio 2, or ESI Gigaport Hd. (Note: The exception here is if you are using Karaoki software from PCDJ, you can safely use the built in audio output on a laptop)
    3. I stay away from the surround sound cards that say they can be used for multi stereo outs, like Creative Labs. I have never been able to make them work.
    4. Don’t forget you will need a secondary video output, HDMI is standard now.
    5. I have been playing Video on an HP Corei5 Intel Laptop for about two years now. I like it a lot, although a little rain got on it and wiped out my audio adapter (Beats Audio by Dre, go figure) everything else works fine, and of course I use the audio from my Denon Controller anyway, so it worked out. If I had $1,200 sitting around and I was only permitted to buy a laptop with it, I would buy the Asus i7 model with the backlit keyboard.

    Update: S-Video is all but dead. If your computer only has HDMI output, you may need to convert that signal to Component to connect to other TV’s. I own an HDMI Scaler made by Atlona purchased at http://www.svideo.com/. HDMI is getting less expensive to work with, There are HDMI distributors on the svideo.com website for a reasonable price, and they have extra long wires available too. I would probably only use HDMI on multiple TVs if I knew I was going to be at that bar for a long time, and was allowed to install the wiring on a semi-permanent basis.

    Update: So I just bought a new Asus Laptop. The two key features I love about it are that it has TWO internal Hard Drives, which means I can keep my karaoke collection separate from the Operating System, and it has a Backlit keyboard, which makes it easier to type in dark bars! I also spent the cash for one of the higher end machines with a Core i& and a 17 Inch screen. So far, it works great.

    • Optional Equipment for Permanent Installations
    1. I strongly recommend a UPS. "UPS" stands for "uninteruptable power supply." These keep the power running to your computer and external hard drives in the case of a brief power outage. Not only will it prevent the need to reboot in the case of a power outage, it can also help protect your equipment from damage. You can find a decent one for under $100.
    2. Lighting. If you have a stage, some stage lighting goes a long way to make the performances seem more professional, and adds to the experience. If you have a dance floor, add some disco style lighting!
    3. Projector and Screen. If you have the space on a wall, there is nothing quite as nice as seeing the karaoke lyrics from all the way across the bar!
    4. Multiple TV’s throughout the bar.
    5. Monitor speaker. This is a small speaker that faces the singer so that they can hear themselves sing.
    6. Equipment Case or Cover. If you are keeping your equipment in the DJ booth permanently, and you do not have it in a DJ Case, you may want to cover it with a piece of vinyl or Even just a large towel, to keep dust from settling on your equipment over night.
    7. A Good Soft Paint Brush. There is no better way to clean between all the knobs and sliders and buttons than using a soft paint brush as a duster.
    8. Booth Lighting. Some small lights to illuminate your keyboard and mixer are invaluable.
    9. A Locking Cabinet. Store your microphones, spare cables, backup hard drive, etc.
    10. Mic Stands, including a Boom Mic for the DJ.

    I have only used two karaoke players since I first began, and I have only recently found a reason to switch. Prices are all over the place for software too, so make certain you have a karaoke library ready to go and then use the trial versions whenever possible to figure out which software you like the best.

    When it comes to DJ software, the two most popular titles are Virtual DJ and Serato.

    I am using Virtual DJ for my gigs. (Only when I am DJ’ing, not to fill in karaoke’s dead-air), I started using it because it plays video, and in auto-mode, it can eliminate silence commonly found on the beginning and end of MP3’s. Virtual DJ will also play Karaoke files. I have heard from friends however that Virtual DJ is very picky about the karaoke files it plays. Virtual DJ is by far the less expensive of the two options.

    Update: The reason Virtual DJ is picky about playing ZIPPED karaoke files is that there is a propreitary ZIP format out there, and some karaoke ZIPS seem to be in this format. If you simply unzip and re-zip any song that gives you problems, you can play them just like you could in any other program. A friend of mine recently used winrar to decompress and recompress his entire library. It took a solid week of the computer running around the clock, but he is far happier now. I think you could do the same thign with MP3+G Toolz, not sure if it would go any faster.

    Serato. Serato is a very powerful piece of DJ software. The software itself is free, however there is a catch; Serato requires the use of special hardware (A Serato Box) which is the only way to get audio out, and the only way to fully unlock the software. Without the Serato box connected to your computer, the software is in a sort of "setup" mode where you can get prep work done, but it is not very useful for playing music. The Serato Box also allows you to connect Vinyl or CD Turntables in order to control your music. With the use of special records or CDs you can "scratch" an mp3 on your computer as if it were an old fashioned record. Serato is an industry standard, and many night clubs provide Turntables and Serato Boxes ready to go, so all you need to bring is your laptop and music. Serato, boxes are expensive, and if you choose to use Serato, you will need to buy one in order to practice using the software at home. There is no doubt the image of using Vinyl is very impressive, but the control of the music can be done for far less money, and with far less complication using a media controller.

    I used to use Traktor DJ Studio. version 2 to fill the dead air during karaoke. At the time I write this, Version 3 is out, but I just don’t like it as much. Maybe I’m just resistant to change.

    Sax and Dottys Karaoke Hoster. It is a homegrown program created by a karaoke host. It plays Mp3 + G files that have been zipped together. It costs about $68, and is well worth every penny! The program uses the winamp engine, and some free plugins, to play the karaoke.

    PCDJ Karaoki software. I have Just started using this software for a show, I’ve only done two nights with it. However, it is a neat piece of software. Besides allowing you to play all your karaoke songs, if you have internet access, you can purchase karaoke tracks on the fly, and you can use it with the karaoke cloud pro subscription service. It also has great features like automatically playing regular music to fill in dead air between songs, rotation management, and it seems to automatically find your second screen. The reason I started looking into it though is because it is the necessary player to have if you want to use the Karaoke Cloud Pro subscription service.

    To rip your Music CDs and Karaoke CDs to MP3 or MP3+G, I use and recommend Audio Grabber. It’s Free! Just make sure you go into the settings and deselect the Leading and Trailing Silence options. Otherwise your karaoke graphics will be all out of sync.

    KJ Pro is software to create karaoke books, which is updated every month with new disks available from the different manufacturers. Not all inclusive, but really good. Good way to find what disks you want to buy as well, using the lookup feature. Some of the entries for what songs are on each disk are incorrect, which can lead to problems if you are using CD+G Autoname.

    CD+G Autoname – Must have KJ Pro installed to make this program work. It uses the KJ Pro database to help automatically name files on your computer, as long as they are named with the manufacturer code, disk, track format. So if you used Audiograbber to rip your Sound choice, disk 8805, all tracks, CD+G Autoname will rename it automatically filling in the artist and title according to what it finds in KJ-Pro. That usually means the Artists are listed under "Last, First" Name. Which I HATE!

    Free File Sync – This program is not karaoke specific, it can be used for your mp3 collection, your ideo collection, or just whatever. In a nutshell, you use this software to keep an exact duplicate of entire directories matching. I use it for backups, because it can quickly scan to see what is different on two different drives, directories, etc. and then only copy the stuff that has changed.

    MP3+G Toolz – I use this program to Zip mp3 and CDG files together after ripping with Audiograbber and naming with CDG Autoname.

    I hate paying for software that should be free. I mean hate. HATE! I gladly paid for Virtual DJ and Sax & Dotties, those were programs I needed, and obviously a lot of work went in to them. If CDG Autoname wasn’t free, I would probably be willing to pay a few bucks.

    Latshaw systems provides software at a hefty price. I have only bought KJ File Manager yet, and that is because I wanted to change my files from "Last, First" to "First Last".
    So I downloaded the trial version not realizing that it limits you to only 10 files. However, after using the software, I decided to take a chance, spend the $39 to buy the license, and am I ever glad I did!

    This software makes a list of all your Karaoke zips, (which if you have a lot, takes a LONG time!) and then allows you to manipulate them in batches. I am probably looking at about 200 Hours when all is said and done, to get my files perfectly named how I want, but if I were doing it in Windows Explorer, we are talking months, thousands of hours.

    KJ File Manager also renames your mp3 and CDG files inside the zip to match, which is nice. You can write to the mp3 tags, if you so desire, and a lot of other stuff that I won’t go into detail about here. The point is, If you have a large collection, and you put the time in just once to perfect your naming system, it doesn’t matter what Host software you use down the road, you can simply export the database list and make your song list/book from that! If you need to make a list without using that technique, Latshaw systems also sells a Song List Generator, a Request Slip Generator, a Player, and more! Checkout their website to find out more. I won’t be purchasing any more of their software, but I would welcome a chance to review their other titles, in case any of them are reading =)

    Karaoke Books and Online Karaoke Song Searches

    https://www.songbookdb.com/ – This website hosts a Song Database for KJ’s, DJ’s, and Bands for Free! Essentially you just download the software, let it scan your Karaoke Folder, and upload the Database it creates to the website. It’s very easy, if not completely intuitive, and there are easy to follow directions each step of the way.

    Once you have uploaded your Database, your customers simply go to the website, enter your personal code, and they can search your library using Artist, Title, or Both, from their very own smart phones! They can also see all your gigs at different Venues, you’re website, phone number, etc. So if you train them to use this resource, they can instantly check where your next gig is at without having to call you, text you, or blow up your facebook.

    This one also includes a File/Song List Generator that can export to an Excel Spreadsheet File, and it’s free!

    There are a few draw backs to this system, it is not entirely intuitive, but there are great instructions if you slow down and take the time to read them. Also, your personal code is 5 Letters and Numbers long, like mine was "GFP2A" until I decided I was ready to pony up the $9 one time fee to change it to "JAMIE"

    This is powerful stuff, and completely worth the $9 for a custom code, so I would encourage you to show some support to a programmer who obviously loves Karaoke and is trying to make it better for all of us. But you could use it absolutely free just the way it is!

    http://www.songbookslive.com/ – Another product from Latshaw systems, this is only $11 per year, and they host your song list just like songbookdb.com. I decided not to go with this one because there is a very similar website "songbooklive.com" (No "S") that could make things confusing for a drunken karaoke singer at the bar.

    This Song book Host uses Latshaw’s Song List Generator Software, which is very impressive, and very easy to use. You can use it for free to upload a song list to the website, but if you want to print Actual Books, or export anything you have to pay the $69 for the Licensed Version. That seems a little pricey to me, but it is obviously very powerful software. I have seen a lot of positive comments on this software in KJ Forums as well. If you want to skip all the extra steps I took, you can simply fork over the $69 and be done with it.

    I was hoping to find something like the CAVS app, but I don’t think it can be used by people who don’t actually have a CAVS systems.

    So I have done what I always do, I worked with the tools available and pushed forward! I have gone ahead and bought Latshaw’s KJ File Manager to perfect my file names. I then used the songbookDB program, uploaded to that website, and if you wanted to, you could do the same thing and stop right here.

    After I had every file name as close to perfect as I could get, which was quite the task, I used songbookdb’s app to create the file list, then exported that to Excel.

    In Excel, I first deleted all the Disk ID Information (Just deleted one entire column) Then I filtered out all the Records with the word "Vocal" in the Title Column. (Excel Instructions ) (Be careful not to Delete the Starland Vocal Band!) and then I used the Filter in Place with Unique Records option to remove the duplicates .

    I then imported that worksheet into a MS Access Database that has some very good reports in place and ready to go. I printed the resulting Report using DoPDF to make it in to an Adobe PDF document, and then copied that to my Kindle to allow people to browse while in the bar. No matter what, it is a lot of work, and you too will have to deal with this as well. This is a very complicated process, and I may make a step by step guide later down the road, but for now, find someone who is fluent in MS Excel and Access to help you if you decide to try and make the PDF for your Kindle.

    So what did all that get me? Here’s a Sample Page of what can be seen on my kindle at the bar. You will Notice I missed two files named "Emimem" instead of Eminem. There is also two different spellings of "Emerson, Lake & Palmer"

    You will have the same problem with spelling inconsistencies and errors no matter which software you use, Eminem is just extraordinarily easy to miss when proof reading. You will also see that one of the songs listed under Eminem is "Real Slim Shade, The" which of course is another Spelling error that I will strive to correct the next time I am renaming files. This happens on a regular basis, since I am constantly buying new songs, so it is not all that difficult a fix, except that I have to repeat the entire process, fix the file name on both my laptop and my backup drive, re import into my software, etc..

    You may also spot "EMF – Unbelievable" in the far left column. I assure you I have more than one version of that song, SC, CB, etc. but it only shows up once. When you get your entire file system correct, that is what you are striving for, a single entry for a single song with multiple manufacturers.

    No matter what, you have to actually stop editing and move your files onto a drive to play off of eventually, so make perfection your goal, but don’t wait until you achieve it to put whatever you have ready to go in place. When the gigs are over, you can always go back and start working on files again.

    OK, by popular demand, let’s delve into what Pirating actually is, legally.

    The very first thing you need to know is I am not a lawyer, this information is based on my understanding of the law, and is no substitute for getting a lawyer.

    There are two parts of the law that relate to Music, Karaoke, and Video. The first is Copyright, and the second is Trademark.

    Copyright Law in the United States heavily favors the Publishers, Composers, and Rights owners of music. (And movies, software, games, photos, etc)

    Basically, Copyright says that for an extremely long time after it is published, a creative work can only be made available commercially by the Rights Holder. No one else is allowed to recreate it, use it, or sell it without permission (known as licensing). There is an exception to this, known as Fair Use, which covers things like educational use, parodies, and some other specific purposes. As a DJ or Venue that plays music or Karaoke, you never actually "own" the music you pay for. You own the disk it comes on, but the right to play it in public needs to be licensed separately.

    Licensing Music for Public Performance

    The Venue that hires entertainment is legally responsible for obtaining licensing to play music in their establishment. The only time they don’t need to pay for licensing is if the only music played there is original. So original bands are cool, as long as they never play a cover song. Everyone else needs to get licensed, whether it’s Karaoke, DJ, Bands, whatever. (Exception: I’ve heard Satellite Radio may not need to be licensed separately. If you decide to go this route, please verify with a lawyer.)

    So, since most places want to hear music people actually know, let’s assume you are playing popular music. There are three major associations that license music in the US. They are ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC. If a bar get’s a Jukebox through a dealer, the dealer automatically applies for licensing for the Jukebox from the big 3, and this is how they know when a new Restaurant or Bar has opened. They will send an investigator to see if the bar has entertainment, and soon after the owner of the bar gets a letter saying "pay up or else". The license for the Jukebox DOES NOT COVER other music in the venue.

    The amount of the licensing fee is based on the capacity of the bar, the kind of music (DJ, Band, Karaoke, Video), and the number of nights music is played. This Fee is the responsibility of the owner of the Venue, and NOT the entertainment. Unless the owner is a jerk and tries to make you split it with them.

    So what happens if you download music or karaoke and play it in a bar? In the case of music, probably nothing. There are so many people Downloading music, the Big 3 just can’t keep up. Besides, they make their money on the licensing from the venues, and it generally is not worth their time to sue little piss ant DJ’s. They also have no way of knowing if you purchased the music or not (See Note). If they do happen to sue you though, the statutory damages are in the Thousands of dollars FOR EACH SONG! So do yourself a favor, and just buy the music.

    (Note: Shifting Music from a CD to your Hard Drive may not be considered legal, however, I strongly suspect that no Music Production company wants to set that precedent, since Using Computers to play music has become standard)

    In the case of Karaoke, you will probably get caught sooner or later. I personally know someone who was caught by Sound Choice, and it cost him $35 Large to get out of trouble. Do you have $35 grand laying around? I thought not.

    So the way it works is, Karaoke manufacturers don’t actually own the Copyright to the music they produce, so they can’t sue you for Copyright infringement. They license the right to make karaoke versions. However, since they almost always include an image of their Trademark on the lyrics screen, they have been suing KJ’s for Trademark Infringement. Theoretically, one could be sued for Trademark infringement for playing a downloaded video as well, since many of them include the Trademark of the manufacturer of the disk somewhere on the screen.

    So a Trademark is something that uniquely identifies a company that does business. My DJ name, "DJ Jamie" as well as the cartoon version of my head are both Trademarked. You can Trademark something just by putting "TM" next to it. A Circle with an "R" inside is a registered Trademark. A registered Trademark is expensive to get, but it gives the owner much more power to protect it.

    The idea behind Trademark is to make a company distinguishable from other companies in the same industry. So if you own an Apple Farm, the phone manufacturer with the Apple logo is not likely to win a lawsuit claiming Trademark infringement if you use an Apple as your logo. The reason is, no one is going to mistake "Harry’s Apple Farm" for an Electronics Manufacturer. They can sue, but they will probably lose. Again, lots of money in court, spent on lawyers, poor Harry may lose his business if he fights, even though he did nothing wrong, even if he wins in court.

    Now let’s say your name is Jaime and you are a DJ, and you decide that starting tomorrow, to use the name "DJ Jaime". If you are in North Dakota, and I continue to Play in New York, Florida, and North Carolina, we will probably never have a problem.

    If you decided to use the name "DJ Jaime" in the same market that I have already been playing in, now we have an issue. Since I haven’t Registered my Trademark, I’m not likely to get any money from suing you, but I can probably force you to change your name. Why? Because your use of the name "DJ Jaime" is VERY likely to cause confusion amongst our shared customers and potential customers, and they may think you represent my business.

    Now let’s say you decide to spend the money to Register your Trademark. The Trademark office checks to make sure there is not already a "DJ Jaime" registered. and then issues the Trademark. If you discover I am using something similar to your Registered Trademark after that, you could sue me for Trademark Dilution. I will defend myself by showing I had used AND published the Mark before you did, and I likely won’t have to pay anything, and I may be forced to change my name. However it will cost us both lots of money in court. A smarter move is to make sure to do some research for whatever name you choose before you spend money on logos, websites, etc. If there is a conflict after the fact, try to work it out before getting lawyers involved. Most people are reasonable given the chance to be.

    So, as it relates to Karaoke. Sound Choice and Chartbuster have their logos on the video output of karaoke tracks they sell. By purchasing those tracks, you are entering a sort of implied contract, where you get permission to display those trademarks. If you don’t buy the tracks, you don’t get the permission. When they send an investigator to your bar, and see their marks on your screen, without permission, they may sue. The Statutory amount for Trademark Infringement is $200 Thousand. They don’t have to sue you for Copyright of the music, because they have you dead to rights on the Trademark.

    "But I don’t produce karaoke tracks, I just play them!"

    You are right, and furthermore, since your average customer can’t tell the difference between a bought and paid for karaoke track versus a pirated one, there is no more dilution of the Trademark when you use it without permission than there is by someone using it with permission. That is a great and astute legal argument! You should be proud of yourself. Go get yourself a Mocha Grande Latte!

    But remember when I said if you pay to Register your mark, you get a lot more power to protect it? In this case, you will most likely lose, especially when the Manufacturer’s Lawyer brings up you already illegally obtained the music. You’re starting out in a bad light, and it’s just going to get worse. And who is going to pay the lawyers for you if you win with that argument?

    How do they know whether I bought the Karaoke or not?

    They don’t. From the lawsuits I’ve heard about, they go to a judge and say, based on the "sheer number of songs " in the book, they have a "reasonable belief " that they must have been pirated. They file suit, and try to convince a judge to grant them a subpoena to audit your collection. They don’t even bother notifying you that they are suing you, and so they get first crack at the judge, while you are not being represented. Sounds fair, doesn’t it? If the judge says OK, they send some representatives and a sheriff, take your stuff, and you are screwed. If you do get notice about the legal action, and deny wrong doing, the manufacturer of the karaoke products will generally offer to drop the action if you consent to an audit of your music collection. (4th Amendment be damned!)

    This is all with no proof what so ever you did anything wrong.

    If you do consent to the audit, they are not only going to audit the karaoke they produced, they are also going to audit every single track, and every single disk. If you’re missing a single disk, out of thousands, they may over look it if you promise to replace it immediately. They may force you to buy it on the spot.

    If you are missing a disk from a different karaoke manufacturer than the one who filed suit, they will notify that manufacturer. I know Sound Choice has claimed to represent several other Manufacturers, and they do this because of the cost associated with an audit, and have permission from other Karaoke Producers. I don’t know the truth of all that, but I do know it sounds like a very bad time to have to deal with it, legal or not. At least if everything is legit, eventually it will all go away.

    Well, I hope this Guide has been helpful. Over the years, several people have e-mailed me to ask questions, so feel free to do the same. Good Luck!


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    ed stetzer masters thesis

    Defining adversity and its role in shaping leadership capacity
    Defining ‘adversity’ leadership
    Workplace adversity and personal resiliency in professional leadership
    Adversity as a useful element in developing leadership capacity
    Adversity and its impact upon pastoral leadership in the 21st century
    What is going on: Are pastors leaving the ministry?
    Why is this happening: ‘Are there systemic pathologies within church life in the West in the 21st century that cause stress within pastoral ministry?’
    What should be happening: ‘Are there biblical paradigms for adversity in pastoral ministry?’
    What can be done: ‘How do we respond to mitigate the current exodus of pastors away from pastoral ministry?’
    Conclusions and areas for further research
    Competing interests

    As churches in the West grapple with the rising tide of secularism, post-modernism and individualised spirituality, the leaders of those churches become casualties of these macro-environmental factors. Statistics show that three pastors in North America leave the vocational ministry every day to move into a different career path. This ongoing loss of leadership must prove detrimental for churches, which in turn are confronting declining attendance figures, declining income and low volunteerism from the membership. It would seem that pastoral leadership is vital to the health and sustenance of the church, and yet churches all over North America are losing pastoral leadership on a daily basis. This article attempts, through the use of Osmer’s heuristic, to review why it is that pastors are leaving the ministry and what might be done to stem that tide. A missional ontology in contrast to a Christendom ontology together with a review of workplace adversity and the Scriptural data on suffering in the ministry are developed for the reader as potential solutions to stem the tide.

    The 21st century is proving to be a time of intense crisis and adversity. Whether it is the economic downturn and the global debt crisis or the tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes and disasters that result from these cataclysmic events, such as the nuclear tragedy in Fukushima, Japan, adversity seems to confront the modern leader at every turn. However, adversity may be a surprising factor in developing leadership strength and leadership capacity. Adversity emerges in the literature as a potential element, given the right conditions and factors (Pellegrini 2009), of personal growth (Durkin & Joseph 2009) and thus also of leadership character (Berry 2007) and the development of leadership capacity (Stoner & Gilligan 2002). Kouzes and Posner (2003:xvii) suggest that leadership ‘creates the climate in which people turn challenging opportunities into remarkable successes’. Brownstein (2009:159) concludes that many leaders in North America ‘have no idea how to make good use of our adverse circumstances’. He (Brownstein 2009:163) also incisively points out that ‘[a ] leader doesn’t herd; a leader doesn’t blindly follow others in their foolishness. A leader must have a theory through which he or she sees the world clearly’.

    What type of world-view thrives in a context of adversity? What type of leadership emerges from contexts of adversity and then thrives in situations of adversity? Wilson and Rice (2004) point out the following:

    Times of adversity often give rise to unpredictability, fear, anxiety, and loss of confidence. Such circumstances call for inspirational leadership, which gives employees the motivation, commitment, and productivity to take advantage of the opportunities lying on the other side of what seems to be a dark curtain of misfortune. (p. 3)

    This general research article seeks to understand how adversity shapes leadership in general leadership and pastoral leadership, in particular, utilising a literature review for leadership in general and Osmer’s (2010) heuristic for the effect of adversity upon pastoral leadership. The first part of this article, the literature review, seeks to understand how adversity shapes leadership. In order to achieve this goal, I searched Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Elton B. Stevens Co. (EBSCO) and Journal Storage (JSTOR) within the date range 2000 to 2012, using the following keywords: ‘adversity’, ‘leadership’ and ‘resilience’. Articles in English were included. The second part of this article focuses on pastoral leadership and the impact of adversity by using Osmer’s (2010) heuristic to uncover the potential causes of decimation amongst church leadership. The articles also tries to determine what – if anything – can be done to stem the tide? Osmer’s heuristic follows a fourfold line of inquiry, namely:

    • What is going on: ‘Are pastors leaving the ministry because they face serious opposition, difficulty and adversity during their ministry career? What factors contribute to the current exodus of pastors from vocational ministry?’

    • Why is this happening: ‘What systemic pathologies lead to the endemic adversity and consequent stress that seem to be causing so many pastors to leave the ministry in the 21st century?’

    • What should be happening: ‘What is the Biblical view of the pastoral role, and is intense and widespread adversity a natural component of leadership and by extension the pastorate?’

    • What can be done: ‘How do we mitigate the current exodus from the pastoral ministry? Are there strategies and mechanisms that can be developed to help churches and pastors see longevity and health within the realm of pastoral leadership?’

    The following question also arises: Why does adversity seem to shape business and ‘secular’ leaders with seemingly positive outcomes whilst within the ranks pastors it seems to cause career termination and loss? What is the difference between the way in which business and secular leaders handle adversity and the way in which pastoral leaders handle adversity? What causes such seemingly different outcomes in the current global milieu of adversity, crisis and uncertainty? This article attempts to uncover these factors as well as trying to provide some suggestions on how the current tide of the daily loss of pastoral leaders might be stemmed.

    Defining adversity and its role in shaping leadership capacity

    Adversity can be defined (Jackson, Firtko & Edenborough 2007) as ‘the state of hardship or suffering associated with misfortune, trauma, distress, difficulty or a tragic event’. Stoner and Gilligan (2002) distinguish adversity from crisis based on the risk of survival. For Stoner and Gilligan, adversity comprises the following three elements:

    • Adversities are unexpected.
    • Adversities are disruptive, twisting and thwarting the expected patterns of planned action.
    • Adversity has a level of uncertainty and ambiguity surrounding it. The path through it is often not immediately clear.

    Jackson and Daly (2011) define adversity as it relates to the domain of leadership within the nursing profession in Australia as follows:

    Workplace adversity has been conceptualized in nursing as the cluster of negative, stressful, traumatic or difficult situations or hardships stemming from working conditions, the work environment and the daily challenges encountered in an occupational setting. It is often associated with excessive workloads, lack of autonomy, bullying and violence, and organizational issues such as restructuring. (p. 21)

    They (Jackson & Daly 2011:22) then expand on this definition with a plethora of challenges that nurse leaders face in their daily regimen and conclude that ‘ … personal resilience is an essential characteristic, necessary for nurse leaders to effectively manage the many, often unremitting, and highly complex demands placed on them.’

    In his Asa Yancey lecture, Pellegrini (2009) gives us an example that illustrates this definition of adversity and how it shapes leadership capacity when he states: ‘I believe that we build strength when we face the barriers that are put in our path.’ He then goes on to recount his youth in Argentina and the severe moral crisis that corrupt leadership brought about as well as his attempts to change the environment and the difficulties that caused him to leave Argentina to seek a new life in the USA (Pellegrini 2009:143). Pellegrini then outlines his desire to become a surgeon and the difficulty he faced because even though he applied to every conceivable program, no one even offered him the possibility for an interview. Pellegrini (2009) shares that he felt:

    shameful and down every time I received another thin letter with just a few lines of apology for not offering me an interview, but I went on and eventually I was offered a preliminary position at the University of Chicago in their internship program. (p. 143)

    Pellegrini also describes how, in the early years in Chicago, he felt like he had lost his anchor (his modes of being, language, food, music, way of living), and so he was adrift, and this drift was the root of his adversity. Pellegrini’s experience of adversity fits all three of the criteria listed in Stoner and Gilligan’s definition. What is key for Pellegrini is that he had a keen self-awareness as reflected in his personal engagement and the way in which he perceived the reality of his circumstance. He understood his circumstances as a situation of adversity in which he needed to develop a paradigm to address that adversity. Pellegrini’s (2009) paradigm is a stroke of genius, and it is reflected in his eight rules represented in summary form in Table 1.

    TABLE 1: Pellegrini’s eight rules.

    It is clear that Pellegrini faced adversity and that this adversity refined his leadership capacity. Pellegrini reframed his experience of adversity into a learning event that enabled him to acquire, through reflection on a specific period of adversity in his life, a world-view or mental framework that serves as a paradigm for each new situation of adversity he faces in his leadership role as a surgeon. This paradigm, forged by adversity, is so clear and useful to Pellegrini that he felt compelled to share it with a larger audience of professional colleagues in his Asa Yancey lecture.

    However, it is not just people in adulthood who develop leadership capacity through adversity. Teenagers facing adversity can also develop leadership traits as (Shepherd, Reynolds & Moran 2010:273–290) point out in their study. They (Shepherd et al. 2010) aimed at exploring:

    … the psychological journey from adversity to resilience, starting with participants’ memories of an adverse event (or set of events) in adolescence, and then the processes that constituted their recovery. Resilient adolescents who have coped with adversities such as foster care or early motherhood typically present personal strengths including problem-focused coping skills, internal locus of control, self efficacy, and positive ambitions. (p. 274)

    Lee et al. (2009) present an extensive study on resilience in children in the face of adversity with special reference to the ecological or environmental and cultural factors that influence how people, and by extension their children, approach adversities in life. They go on to state (Lee et al. 2009):

    It was found that positive cultural beliefs about adversity was associated with a higher level of positive mental health, better school adjustment, and less problem behaviors, even more so for adolescents facing adversity (such as economic disadvantage). (p. 440)

    The conclusion that Lee et al. (2009:451) draw from their extensive research with three waves of data collected from a sample of 843 Grade–4 pupils is that children exhibit a higher level of resilience in the face of adversity when they experience a better quality of family life. This conclusion is reached after the researchers (Lee etal. 2009) point out that:

    … even large scale programmatic effort will not be sufficient to raise a generation of young people who are optimistic about their future … Indeed, family is considered the most important source of social capital. (p. 450)

    For the purposes of this literature review, what is key in this study is that, in the course of their research, Lee et al. (2009:450) highlight the notion that adversity can be a useful element in developing the kind of character in children that would be useful in leadership settings. They state (Lee et al. 2009):

    … what constitutes the outcome of resilience has evolved from a focus on a reduction of negative outcome to a focus on positive development, such as psychological well-being and a positive outlook–and this overlaps with the concept of quality of life (QOL). (p. 450)

    Defining ‘adversity’ leadership

    The concept of leadership is a contested one, but four broad categories (Bolden & Kirk 2009:70–71) of theory can be identified, namely:

    • essentialist, which sees leadership as something done by leaders to followers
    • relational, which sees leadership not as innate but as residing in the leader’s relationship with others
    • critical, which sees leadership in a negative light as something used to maintain status relationships and legitimise the unequal distribution of power and resources
    • constructionist, which sees leadership as a process of constructing shared meanings that enable people to make sense of their predicament.

    Reflecting on Bolden and Kirk’s research (2009:69–86), it seems useful to define leadership as an art and a skill in which a person or persons collaborate to construct shared meaning with a view to securing helpful outcomes. Adversity often poses a threat to the accomplishment of those outcomes and thus calls for certain types or styles (Kerfoot 2003:232) of leadership in response to the threat. Kerfoot (2003) states: ‘Leaders help us transcend life’s adversity by bringing us together in new self-organised ways that create a sense of belonging and caring among us.’ Leadership in the face of adversity must thus take on an inspirational tone (Kerfoot 2003):

    … because we create the cultures in which people’s spirits can grow, or die, in adversity as well as in good times. Those who can keep the spirit of the organization alive in times of great adversity are the truly great leaders of our time. (p. 233)

    Building on this idea that great leaders are those who keep the spirit of an organisation alive in times of great adversity, Wilson and Rice (2004) state:

    But steering an organization skillfully through adverse conditions doesn’t just happen. Handling the intangibles—instituting more efficient processes, developing a strategic plan, tightening spending, diversifying the customer base, and so on—is in many ways the easy part. The trickier part is mastering the intangibles involved in practicing a model of leadership that is often qualitatively different from and runs counter to the theories of leadership prevalent in modern organizations and in society as a whole. This model is inspirational leadership- displaying the skills that enable leaders to motivate, grow, and build confidence in the people they lead so the organization can regularly achieve high standards of performance, even in tough times. (p. 4)

    The idea that leadership in the face of adversity must be inspirational is attested to on many fronts. For example, Nancy Adler, in her 2009 Duke University lecture ‘Inspiring leaders of the future’, speaks extensively about the role of inspirational leadership in shaping history, especially in the face of adversity. For Adler (2009), leadership is courage, and she defines this as the:

    … courage to see reality the way it actually is. It is the courage to see possibility even when others cannot see this possibility and label you as completely naïve and stupid for suggesting that there is possibility when others see none. It is the courage to inspire people to move from reality back to the type of opportunity and possibility we would really like to live in. (n.p.)

    Adler attributes the roots of her courage to her mother and her mother’s stories of intense adversity during her childhood in Vienna as a Jew during World War II and the inspirational way in which her mother, as a 14-year-old teenager, had survived and thrived in this context of adversity.

    Wilson and Rice (2004:4) see adversity in an organisation as a great opportunity from which the organisation can emerge stronger, revitalised and more resilient, mature, focused and disciplined. Ferrer (2009:21) asserts the same optimistic perspective on the opportunity that adversity holds within the context of academic heads of colleges and universities within the Philippines. Wilson and Rice (2004) point out that, to achieve positive outcomes in the face of adversity, requires inspirational leadership:

    … displaying the skills that enable leaders to motivate, grow, and build confidence in the people they lead so the organization can regularly achieve high standards of performance, even in tough times. As people in organizations experience higher than usual levels of stress, new demands are made on their leaders. (p. 4)

    Wilson and Rice (2004:4–5) point out that inspirational leadership surfaces naturally during times of uncertainty and complexity (adversity) and state: ‘Inspirational leadership can breathe the capacity for responding to adversity into the heart and soul of an organization, and this capacity becomes part of the organization’s culture.’ They list the following characteristics and capabilities as endemic to inspirational leadership in the face of adversity (Wilson & Rice 2004):

    • Strategic orientation and vision. In adversity, leaders require impressive mental, social, physical and spiritual intelligence. These are leaders who can see beyond the horizon and who are willing to take calculated risks. They are also the kinds of leaders who are naturally compelling.

    • Strong awareness of perspectives and behaviour. As people in organisations look for cues on how to deal with misfortune and distress, they turn to their leaders’ words and actions for inspiration and for an example they can follow.

    • Sense-making communications. People operating in adverse conditions want to believe that they can negotiate their way forward and past the unfortunate events or circumstances in a sensible way. They want to know the goals the organisation will pursue and why those goals have been chosen.

    • Competence-building communication. Leaders can support their followers by taking an interest in developing them, helping them reach their full potential and making them feel important and valued. (p. 4)

    Workplace adversity and personal resiliency in professional leadership

    Personal resilience refers (Shepherd et al. 2010:273) ‘to a process of dynamic adaptation to adversity – the active process of coping, reframing experience, and even thriving after trauma and loss’. Personal resilience does not describe a finalised state or trait since no one can be classified as resilient in a static and permanent way. Kerfoot (2003) writes in the context after September 11, 2001: ‘Extreme states of adversity often create a blur as we try to lead through the confusion of the event.’ It seems that leadership within contexts of workplace adversity is extremely complex because there is often so much uncertainty in a world of such rapid and massive global change (Levenson 2002:165–176). Kerfoot (2003:233) goes on to point out that leading through times of great adversity is a new challenge in which the leadership styles of yesterday will not fit in this new chapter because the world is changing so rapidly. Kerfoot suggests that the true test of leadership is what happens when uncontrollable fate turns the world upside down and the leader must, somehow, move forward. Kerfoot suggests that adversity refines and reveals true leadership character and that a leader’s capacity is developed if that leader can reframe situations of adversity as a learning experience. Jackson et al. (2007) review the effects of adversity in the nursing profession in Australia whilst Brownstein (2009) looks at the impact of the economic downturn on business leaders in America. Pellegrini (2009) reviews circumstances of personal adversity in both Argentina and the USA and how personal adversity better prepared him for life as a surgeon and as a leader within his profession in the USA. Farmer and Officer (2010) discuss the impact of adversity upon educational leaders and possible mechanisms to address such adversity. In this section, we review the dynamic interplay between workplace adversity and personal resiliency with a view to understanding the innate capacity to respond to adversity and learned capacity to respond to adversity.

    Stoner and Gilligan (2002:17–24) focus on the interplay of workplace adversity and personal adversity when they point out that ‘adversity has a unique impact on leaders’. Stoner and Gilligan unpack the personal narrative of leaders passing through adversity by detailing the three stages of growth that leaders experience when facing workplace adversity that cause personal distress. Stoner and Gilligan (2002) surface the notion that:

    … successful leaders followed a surprisingly consistent path when confronted with the disruption of adversity. Three stages of response or rebound emerged: disillusionment, reflection and transformation. Each stage appeared to be an essential step in the overall process of constructive adjustment. (p. 17)

    Stoner and Gilligan (2002:23) conclude their article by stating: ‘All of us face adversity and crisis. None of us are exempt. Rebound leaders make a series of conscious decisions that facilitate their movement through adversity.’

    Jackson et al. (2007) review a vast body of literature related to workplace adversity within the nursing profession. Their goal in the literature review is to identify strategies that enhance personal resilience in nurses. Jackson et al. (2007:1) identify workplace adversity associated in nursing with ‘excessive workloads, lack of autonomy, bullying and violence and organisational issues such as restructuring …’ Jackson et al. (2007:1) go on to state: ‘However, despite these difficulties many nurses choose to remain in nursing, and survive and even thrive despite a climate of workplace adversity.’ Jackson et al. (2007:4) propose that nurse educators better prepare nurses for the ongoing and sustained adversity related to their work by utilising the model developed by the Human Becoming School of Thought (HBST) in which the nurses are able to develop strategies of reflective learning and reflexive practice. Added to this notion of learned resilience through the understanding of the HBST is the fact that they (Jackson et al. 2007:5) also point out that ‘the personality trait of hardiness helps to buffer or neutralise stressful events or extreme adversity’. They then cite, from the literature, that resilience can be learned and present the following three dimensions of resilience:

    • being committed to finding meaningful purpose in life
    • the belief that one can influence one’s surroundings and the outcome of events
    • the belief that one can learn and grow from both positive and negative life experiences.

    Another aspect (Jackson et al. 2007:5) of hardiness that is more an innate personality trait than a learned behaviour is that of optimism or positive emotions. These positive emotions or the sense of optimism serves to broaden a person’s initial thought-action inventory, which increases thoughts and possible actions that come to mind, which in turn builds long-term personal resilience. As a result of these findings, Jackson et al. (2007:6) propose the following self-development strategies for nurses that can help build personal resilience to workplace adversity:

    • build positive nurturing professional relationships and networks
    • maintain positivity
    • develop emotional insight
    • achieve life balance and spirituality
    • become more reflective.

    Jackson et al. (2007:6–7) expand the discussion of each of these elements in the rest of their article and conclude by stating:

    We believe that it is not only possible but favourable to build resilience as a strategy for assisting nurses to survive and thrive. Nurses’ occupational setting will always contain elements of stressful, traumatic or difficult situations, and episodes of hardship. Therefore, combatting these adverse effects through minimizing vulnerability and promoting resilience has the potential to impact positively on nurses’ daily experiences. (p. 7)

    Jackson and Daly (2011:21–22) update this study with an incisive article in which they point out the following:

    Today’s nurse leaders are facing challenges and levels of accountability perhaps not contemplated by previous generations of nurses. Nurse leaders are sometimes seen as being all things to all people, and Hewison highlights this in posing the question, ‘Do we expect too much of our leaders?’ (p. 21)

    Jackson and Daly (2011:21) also highlight the fact that, although the pressures and difficulties on nursing leaders are real and legion, there is a relatively scant body of literature, and the literature that does exist focuses more on the positive aspects of leadership than on dealing with the difficulties and complexities that can take their toll on even the most committed leaders.

    Farmer (2010:1), in a paper presented at the annual meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association called ‘Resilience development strategies for educational leaders’. In his article, Farmer (2010:1) lists the circumstances of adversity that educational leaders in the USA currently face:

    • increasing costs
    • flat or decreasing revenue streams
    • decreasing fund balances
    • unfunded mandates
    • increasing accountability
    • decreasing autonomy
    • continued demise of the nuclear family
    • increased poverty
    • changing demographics
    • high school board turnover
    • teacher morale issues
    • recruitment and retention issues
    • aging facilities
    • tax payer revolt.

    He then goes on to say (Farmer 2010:1): ‘It is easy to see how school leaders could allow themselves to become consumed by adversity.’ Whilst adversity can be helpful in developing leadership capacity, especially if one applies the matrix developed by Pellegrini (2009) or Jackson et al. (2007:5), Farmer (2010:2) suggests healthy coping mechanisms such as a balanced exercise program and a healthy diet as opposed to unhealthy coping mechanisms such as overeating, alcohol or drug abuse or negative attitudes that can lead to negative outcomes. Just like Pellegrini (2009) and Jackson et al. (2007:5), Farmer presents a positive mental outlook as a powerful coping mechanism when facing adversity. Farmer (2010:2) also points out that ‘[a ] positive attitude during difficult times can also simultaneously promote personal health and serve as a professional example to both colleagues and educational stakeholders alike’.

    Farmer (2010:4), much like Pellegrini (2009) and Jackson et al. (2007:5), present a list of healthy coping mechanisms that can increase educational leaders’ chances of both overcoming adversity and promoting personal health as follows:

    • a routine of exercise and healthy diet
    • a positive life view
    • a sustained focus on building bridges between stakeholders
    • spiritual renewal
    • a focus on one’s personal mission
    • a determination to model resilience
    • utilisation of supportive professional networks.

    Farmer (2010) concludes by stating the following:

    The incorporation of healthy coping mechanisms into a balanced lifestyle can lead to both positive health benefits and more effective leadership. By utilizing these healthy coping mechanisms as part of their daily life, school leaders are more likely to overcome adversity and accomplish organizational objectives. School leaders employing these healthy coping mechanisms have an increased likelihood of mental, physical and social vigor. Through the effective use of healthy coping mechanisms, school leaders develop resilience skills and increase their capacity to overcome adversity. (p. 4)

    Adversity as a useful element in developing leadership capacity

    Most people see adversity as an unwelcome intrusion into the rhythms of life. Adversity is certainly unwelcome because it is often disruptive, and yet it seems that the literature, which covers a wide range of professional and personal experience, highlights that adversity has a refining (Stoner & Gilligan 2002:17) and strengthening (Galli & Vealey 2008:318) capacity within the lives of those who become leaders or those who serve as leaders. Building upon Brownstein’s (2009:163) notion that ‘A leader doesn’t herd; a leader doesn’t blindly follow others in their foolishness. A leader must have a theory through which he or she sees the world clearly’, it seems absolutely essential that part of a leaders worldview (Wilson & Rice 2004:4) must include an acknowledgement that adversity is unavoidable and that strategies (Farmer & Officer 2010; Jackson et al. 2007:5; Jackson & Daly 2011:21–22; Pellegrini 2009) to deal with adversity on both a personal and professional level are thus vital.

    Strategies for dealing with adversity are listed throughout this article and occur as both intrinsic and extrinsic strategies to deal with the adversity. Intrinsic strategies encompass worldview, attitude and spirituality whilst extrinsic strategies refer to external supports to be garnered in the face of adversity. These intrinsic and extrinsic strategies are grouped in Table 2.

    TABLE 2: Strategies to deal with adversity.

    This table highlights the importance of internal (mental) strategies for developing resilience and leadership capacity in the face of adversity. The extrinsic strategies are also extremely useful, and they possibly buttress and strengthen the intrinsic mental foci essential to strengthening leadership in the face of adversity. It seems that, whether from an early age Lee et al. (2009), in adolescence (Shepherd et al. 2010:273–290) or in adulthood (Farmer & Officer 2010; Jackson et al. 2007:5; Jackson & Daly 2011:21–22; Pellegrini 2009), adversity can be a factor in shaping leadership character and capacity. This is true because, if effective leadership is the ability to construct shared meaning (Kerfoot 2003:233) and to inspire action in difficult and adverse situations, the leader will first have learned this process of refining and applying effective intrinsic and extrinsic strategies in situations of personal adversity before applying those same strategies to situations of workplace adversity that require effective and inspirational leadership (Wilson & Rice 2004:3). Adversity presents a threat that leads either to surrender and despair or to an opportunity to grow through resilient endurance and optimism as evidenced (Table 1) in the various paradigms developed for thriving in the face of adversity.

    It seems that there is a strong connection (Stoner & Gilligan 2002:18) between success and adversity since there is no realisation of success if there is nothing to overcome. Stoner and Gilligan (2002:18) refer to this as the ‘paradox of success: the meaning and value of success are heightened as adverse events build, intensify and are handled’.

    Galli and Vealey (2008:324) provide a diagram of the process of sport resilience in which an athlete moves from adversity to positive outcomes. This diagram mirrors the material gleaned in this literature review that suggests that effective leadership first masters personal adversity, whether in childhood through the support of a strong family system, in adolescence through effective coping mechanisms or in adulthood. The diagram is inserted as Figure 1.

    As outlined in the literature (Stoner & Gilligan 2002), leaders who succeed in the face of adversity undergo the same process of movement from adversity through agitation to strength, learning, perspective and improvement coupled with a desire to help others. Often such a movement to success is possible because of the predisposing factors, as represented in Figure 1, in the life of the leader such as ‘influences’ (Lee et al. 2009:450) and ‘personal resources’ (Pellegrini 2009:144). The question of whether or not leaders can develop these ‘influences’ and ‘resources’ if they have not been cultivated through childhood and adolescent experiences is something Jackson et al. (2007) wrestle with for nursing leaders who face increasing adversity in the workplace. As Farmer and Officer (2010) highlight, wrong responses to adversity are also possible and manifest themselves in ‘unhealthy coping mechanisms that are counterproductive both personally and professionally’.

    Adversity and its impact upon pastoral leadership in the 21st century

    Statistics inform us (Sherman 2012) that three pastors leave the church ministry in North America every day. This figure is startling and represents a major shift in just two decades since Richard Brown (1993) wrote his book Restoring the vow of stability: The keys to pastoral longevity. In Brown’s book, the concern was with pastors who moved around between churches after a short tenure. Now, in the 21st century, pastors are not moving from church to church. It seems that they are just moving right out of the church altogether. The eminent management researcher, Peter Drucker, stated (Malphurs 2003:63) that the pastoral leadership of a large church is one of the most difficult vocations in the world. This article attempts, through the use of Osmer’s (2010) heuristic, to uncover the potential causes of decimation amongst church leadership and what – if anything – can be done to stem the tide. In utilising Osmer’s (2010:3) heuristic, we follow a fourfold line of inquiry, namely:

    • What is going on: ‘Are pastors leaving the ministry because they face serious opposition, difficulty and adversity during their ministry career? What factors contribute to the current exodus of pastors from vocational ministry?’

    • Why is this happening: ‘What systemic pathologies lead to the endemic adversity and consequent stress that seem to be causing so many pastors to leave the ministry in the 21st century?’

    • What should be happening: ‘What is the Biblical view of the pastoral role, and is intense and widespread adversity a natural component of leadership and by extension the pastorate?’

    • What can be done: ‘How do we mitigate the current exodus from the pastoral ministry? Are there strategies and mechanisms that can be developed to help churches and pastors see longevity and health within the realm of pastoral leadership?’

    It seems as though something disturbing might be happening within the leadership of North American churches. It is believed that most people who enter the vocational ministry do so because they believe that it is a call from God, and they want to be obedient to that call. Often though, after years of ministry training in a Bible College, University or Seminary, at great personal and financial cost, they enter some form of vocational ministry with an eagerness to change the world and to build God’s church, only to find that things may not be as they first anticipated or envisaged. What is happening in North American church life to give birth to the alarming loss of three pastors from the vocational ministry every single day? What factors lead to such an exodus and is there any way to stem what seems to be an emerging tide?

    What is going on: Are pastors leaving the ministry?

    Statistics (Krejcir 2011) indicate that three pastors leave the ministry in North America every day, and significant numbers experience ministry burnout (Chandler 2009:273–287) due to inordinate ministry demands. The literature suggests that this attrition in pastoral leadership is a global phenomenon, occurring in countries such as Australia (Miner, Downer & Sterland 2010:167–188), Korea (Shinwan 2006:241–255), and the United Kingdom (Lewis, Turton & Francis 2007:1–8), to name but a few. It is clear that the modern church ministry is exacting a heavy toll upon pastoral leadership. This author conducted a brief on-line survey amongst 51 pastors who have served, or are currently serving, in pastoral ministry in countries such as Canada, Netherlands, France, Germany, Norway, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. The feedback from this survey was as follows:

    • 98% had served in pastoral ministry for four years or longer
    • 75% stated that they had faced serious difficulty in the ministry
    • 75% stated that they had also faced intense opposition in the ministry
    • 67% stated that they had faced exhaustion and sadness in their ministry tenure
    • 52% stated that they had faced hardship in the ministry
    • 48% had faced loneliness in the course of their ministry career
    • 44% faced serious doubt at some time in their ministry career
    • 35% had dealt with feelings of fear whilst in their ministry career.

    Whilst each aspect of adversity listed above could be developed further, the key impression that arises from this broad survey of ministry practitioners is that difficulty and opposition together with exhaustion and sadness are major factors within the ministry profile of more than 65% of these pastors. These figures indicate that serious opposition, hardship and difficulty, coupled with loneliness, exhaustion and sadness, form a major part of the pastoral career profile.

    Both the literature and the statistics cited above indicate that pastors are under duress, and it seems that many of them are vacating the pastoral ministry as a way to alleviate that stress. Some of the pastors surveyed stated that adversity in the ministry is to be expected, a notion that is discussed further in the: ‘What should be happening’, section of this article.

    Within the narrative section of the on-line survey, pastors were asked: ‘Please share any further comments you have about adversity and difficulty in pastoral ministry.’ Their responses were thoughtful and enlightening. One pastor stated:

    ‘There are two main sources of adversity: the world and the visible church. Acts 20:28. The ruling paradigm for ministry simply does not work in a chaotic and post Christian world, where very possibly most of your enemies are sitting in the pew.’ (Participant 34, male, pastor, 50–59 years of age)

    Another pastor had this to say:

    ‘Our culture’s accepted metrics of success in church ministry, and the cult of personality and of the pastor, over against the biblical understanding of the church, not the pastor, as the locus for the dwelling of the Spirit, sets up pastors and prepares us to fall. We need a far more collegial model of church ministry, both pastorally and within our local churches.’ (Participant 32, male, lead pastor, 40–49 years of age)

    Is there some systemic way in which the modern church is structured that may undermine the health and vitality of pastoral leadership within the local church? Both pastors quoted above are keenly aware of the post-Christendom (Frost 2006) nature of the church in the context of the 21st century in Western countries. Many Evangelical churches across North America need to adapt (Stetzer & Putman 2006:7–28) to a missional ontology. That is to say, the church needs to see herself (Stetzer & Putman 2006:21–58) as a missionary community, sent by God, to reach the surrounding community with the Gospel message. Such a shift to a missional mindset, in a post-Christendom milieu, is essential for the effective proclamation of the Gospel (Frost 2006:28–49; Guder 1998:6; White 2006:vii–17). The reality and pressure of a post-Christendom context for the North American church has been a welcome catalyst in moving practitioners and thinkers to reflect on their current praxis with a view to re-shaping both their ecclesiology and their praxis (Braaten 2008:143–151; Guder 1998:6–17; Suderman 2005:1–51). The eminent Lutheran theologian, Braaten (2008), has developed an excellent treatise on the confluent forces that have led to the post-Christendom reality and the need for the North American church to shift from a Christendom to a missional focus. This leads us to the second aspect of Osmer’s (2010:3) heuristic, namely, ‘Why is this happening?’ What systemic pathologies exist that cause such endemic stress within the pastoral ministry in the 21st century?

    Why is this happening: ‘Are there systemic pathologies within church life in the West in the 21st century that cause stress within pastoral ministry?’

    This brief review of some of the literature around workplace adversity highlights the notion that pastors in Western society are not unique in facing adversity related to their leadership role. What may be different is the rate at which pastors leave the ministry when confronted by sustained and intense adversity. This may have something to do with the expectations (Miner 2007:14) that pastors have upon entering the ministry, expectations that the parishioners will love them, work harmoniously with them and that the church is a safe and peaceful place to fulfil one’s calling? Most pastors entering the ministry may be vastly unaware of the leadership challenges before them and the adversity they will face. Indeed, when approaching the question of systemic pathologies within modern church life that may be impeding effective and sustainable pastoral ministry, it may be helpful to think of the local church as a complex adaptive system (Ebright 2010). Complex adaptive systems are ‘diverse living elements made up of multiple interconnected agents that have the capacity to change and learn from experience’ (VanderKaay 2010). From this definition, it is evident that complexity refers to the concept of many diverse yet interconnected living elements. It is evident when one reviews the biblical description of the church as a ‘body’ in 1 Corinthians 12, namely that the church is made up of many different and distinctive (1 Cor 12:12–31) yet interconnected living elements or ‘members’, and so by its very nature, the church might readily be termed ‘complex’. Thomas Oden (2006b) refers to the nature of the church’s complexity when he states:

    Christianity has never been merely a matter of isolated individuals being converted and voluntarily joining together to constitute autonomous, voluntary organizations of believers. Rather the body of Christ is called out by Divine address, from the world from the outset as a corporate, social reality. There can be no absolute individualism in the body of Christ. The church is from the outset defined as a single living organism, an interdependent body with every member depending on the community of faith made alive by the Son through the Spirit (1 John 1:1–7). (p. 280)

    Grudem (2000:951–961) points out that the organising principle of the complex body of Christ is that it is comprised of a community of believers who have come together around a common commitment to the lordship of Christ and their willingness to follow him in discipleship. To fulfil this commitment to Christ and live out their discipleship call, each local church (Erickson 2007:1042) gathers for the purposes of fellowship, prayer, worship, encouragement, evangelism, discipline, service, baptism, Holy Communion or the Lord’s Table and teaching (Erickson 2007:1060–1078; Oden 2006:287–365). By its very nature, every person who is a part of a local church has a role (Eph 4:11–13; 1 Pt 2:9) or function (Grenz 2000:486–510) within that local church, as people exercise the Spiritual gift, or gifts, that have been given to them by the Holy Spirit. It is because of this organismic (Oden 2006:281) nature of the church and the corresponding multifarious diversity within the unity of the Spirit, subsumed in the Lordship of Christ, that the church can be said to be a ‘complex system’.

    Having established that the church is a ‘complex’ system, we need to consider the notion of the church as an ‘adaptive’ system. By ‘adaptive’ system, we refer to the idea that, both within the church and then also outside of the church, there are many different agents acting (Nikolic 2010) and reacting (Senge 2006:73–91). This notion of agency as an aspect of the adaptive nature of systems is extremely helpful when thinking through adversity and the pastorate because it alerts the reader to the fact that the churches in the West, and indeed anywhere in the world, are not static, inanimate entities. Churches all over the world are complex living organisms that are affected by the actions of agents both within (pastors, deacons, elders, members, visitors, etc.) and outside (regional laws, culture, economic realities, family breakdown, etc.) of the church. The linear (Kaiser 2006:46–47; Kaufman 2008), mechanistic (Borden 2003; Malphurs 2004) success model (Rima 2002) of the church-growth methodology may not always acknowledge the powerful impact of internal and external agents that act as stressors upon the leadership of churches and that also impede any sense of success as defined by the Church growth model. The added debilitation of these models is that they create unrealistic expectations in the mind of the pastor(s) who review this more simplistic and linear model as the authoritative definition of church life and church growth. Understanding the church as an adaptive system alerts us to the need for a keen awareness of and research into the multiplicity of internal (Brunson & Caner 2005; Richardson 1996) and external (Carson 2008; Wells 2005) realities that impact the systemic health and vitality of local churches and the way in which endemic pathologies impact pastoral staff in ways that can create intense adversity. The church is adaptive and this means that it is continually changing as it is acted upon both internally and externally. The church is constantly undergoing movement towards either health or increasing strength, or it is moving towards disease and stagnation (Philips 2001:31–77).

    We have identified that the church is both a ‘complex’ system, and it is an ‘adaptive’ system. We must now answer the question: ‘Is it accurate to identify the church as a system?’ Capra (1996) defines living systems in a way that is reminiscent of the church as a living body or organism when he states:

    Living systems are integrated wholes whose properties cannot be reduced to those of smaller parts. Their essential or ‘systemic’, properties are properties of the whole, which none of the parts have. They arise from the organizing relations of the parts, i.e. from a configuration of ordered relationships that is characteristic of that particular class of organisms, or systems. Systemic properties are destroyed when a system is dissected into isolated elements. (p. 36)

    The church is a system because it is comprised of many interdependent parts or ‘members’ (1 Cor 10–12) as the Bible refers to them. These ‘members’ exert influence upon each other that results either in health (Eph 4:29–32; Phlp 4:1–3; Col 3–4) or conversely and unfortunately in un-health (Tt 1:10–11; Ja 4; 2 Pt 2; 3 Jn 9–11; Jude 3–16), dependent upon the nature and purpose of their mutual interactions. As Lars Skyttner (2005) points out:

    A system is a set of interacting units or elements that form an integrated whole intended to perform some function. Reduced to everyday language we can express it as any structure that exhibits order, pattern and purpose. This in turn implies some constancy over time. A system’s purpose is the reason for its existence and the starting point for measuring its success. ‘The purpose of a system is what it does. (p. 57)

    Pastors who lead the church will find it helpful to gain a stronger awareness of the nature of the church as a complex adaptive system. Such awareness will equip the pastor to look beyond the microcosmic forces that are creating adversity to the much larger macrocosmic realities that intersect, interact and, indeed, shape the various people and families who make up the church. The pastor will also realise that simply maintaining the church to keep the peace is not an option since a system functions best when it is accomplishing the purpose it was designed to accomplish. All that the church does should accomplish the missional purpose of ‘bringing many sons [and daughters ] to glory’ (Heb 2:5–10). If the goal of the church is to serve as God’s light in the world, sent into the world by the risen Saviour, perhaps it is essential to change the measurement of success and hence redefine the purpose of the church. If the measurement of success becomes the degree to which the church is serving as a missional community that seeks to make disciples and to shine as light in the darkness, and not the degree to which it attracts large crowds, the expectations upon the leadership of the church and especially the pastors will also change dramatically. This may then lead to a greater sense of satisfaction and health on the part of all of the members who form the church body. If life transformation and spiritual formation through a process of effective biblical discipleship becomes the goal, the size of the church and even the ‘happiness’ of the members is no longer the measurement of effectiveness. If the goal of the church is not so much to be ‘big’ as it is to be ‘missional’ and by implication ‘disciple-making’, the role of the leadership and the expectations upon the leadership change dramatically as does the leadership’s own assessment of their personal and ministry effectiveness.

    In North America, and indeed in most Western countries, the church has functioned within a Christendom framework and continues to do so, even though we live in a post-Christendom era. In the Christendom model of church life and ministry, success has been measured based upon consumer values such as the following: How many people attend, how much do they give to support the programs of the church, how much do these people personally support the ministries of the church? Perhaps, in a post-Christendom milieu, the measure of success should no longer be ecclesio-centric or church centred, but perhaps now, it should be discipleship centred or missio-centric according to the call of Matthew 28:19–20. If the leaders of Evangelical churches in the West can shift the focus of their membership away from the old measures of church size as an indicator of success to a missional focus as the indicator of successful discipleship, there may yet be hope for the survival of pastors – and by extension the Evangelical churches that they are called to serve. This is true simply because the expectation upon those pastors and the role definition for those pastors will change dramatically from chief executive officer (in the Christendom model) to equipper and fellow pilgrim (in the missional model). Roxburgh and Romanuk (2006:12) highlight the distinction between the Christendom pastoral leadership paradigm and the missional pastoral leadership paradigm, in Table 3.

    TABLE 3: Operating models of leadership.

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