Cialis Kaufen In Marokko

Patrick H Pearse


(Poet, Irish Rebel, Gaelic scholar and visionary)

Patrick Pearse was born in Dublin, Ireland on November 10, 1879 to an English sculptor and an Irish woman. The couple had three children: two sons and a daughter. Patrick became interested in Ireland and its Irish history early in life. He joined the Gaelic League, a group founded to preserve the Irish language, at age 21. In order to promote the League’s cause, Patrick changed his anglicized name to the Irish version, Pádraic. Pearse quickly became known as a leader and spokesman for the Gaelic League. His beginnings in this small group would lead to his rise to power in more militant Irish republican groups.

Pádraic Pearse entered the Gaelic League a young boy looking to explore his Irish history. Within three years of joining, he was the editor of the League’s weekly newspaper: An Claidheamh Soluis (“The Sword of Light”). Pearse served as editor of the paper for six years (Britannica On Line). The title of the paper seemed to symbolize Pearse as a man in his early years of battling the British. He tried numerous ways to defeat the British intellectually. He used knowledge, not force, in attempts to liberate Ireland. Some of Pearse’s tactics included publishing old Irish tales from ancient manuscripts and also publishing his own works in Irish rather than English. In 1908, Pearse founded St. Edna’s College near Dublin. St Edna’s structured its curriculum around Irish traditions and culture. Moreover, the college taught both the Irish and English languages.

Although Pearse started out as a literary warrior, he soon found that intellect alone would not rid Ireland of the English. Pearse became involved in militant groups as both a poet and a warrior and benefited Ireland immensely in both ways.

Pearse is known best for his part in planning and executing the Easter Rising of 1916. However, he also played an important role in the advancement of Irish literature. In the late 19th century The Gaelic Revival took place in Ireland. This was a literary movement that focused on the “rich vocabulary and idiomatic expressions in the Irish language and folklore” (BOL). However, the members of this movement were challenged by the diverse dialects of the language. Moreover, there were very few modern works in the genre at the time. Most of the literature being published in Irish was the myths and legends of historical Ireland. Nothing produced early in the revival could compete internationally. It was not until the middle of the 20th century that the language was standardized. At this time, Patrick Pearse was one of the pioneer Irish writers. His poems, essays, and articles were exactly what the Irish needed. Although they were written for the sole purpose of freeing Ireland, his works gave inspiration to a younger generation of poets. He and several of his contemporaries began to write with pure emotion and passion. This was the stepping stone for Irish literature and its launch into the international realm.

When the name Patrick Pearse is mentioned, most do not think of his literary contribution to Ireland. This contribution was significant, but it is not what Pearse died for. His name is not carved in history forever because of his essays or articles. When his name is mentioned, almost all who hear it will think of the Easter Rising of 1916. This is the battle which catapulted Ireland towards freedom. It is also the battle that Pearse and the rebels lost. The battle that, shortly after it ended, Pearse and his friends were executed by firing squad. To understand the rising and why it took place, one must look at the events leading to the rising.

In 1912, thousands of protestant Ulstermen (those Irish residing in the Northeasern province of Ulster) signed the Ulster Covenant of Resistance to Home Rule (BOL). Rather than submit to Home Rule, their leaders decided that a provisional government would be established in Ulster. As tension and controversy over the issue heightened, a paramilitary group, the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) was formed. The UVF was backed by the British military. At one point, an entire cavalry brigade of the Royal Army threatened to resign if ordered to move against the Ulster protestants (DeRosa p. 31) As the Catholics in Ulster became more organized, the protestant paramilitary groups began to attack them. Whenever Catholics would march for religious or economic equality, a riot would usually follow. These were brought on by attacks from the Ulster Volunteer Force.

As a rival to this force, the Irish Volunteers were formed in November 1913, with Pearse a member of their committee. Again, Pearse contributed poems, articles, and essays to the group’s newspaper, The Irish Volunteer. In July 1914, Pearse was made a member of the Supreme Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), a separate militant group that believed in using force to throw the British out of Ireland. The Irish Volunteers, Ulster Volunteer Force, and the IRB began to stockpile weapons. Ireland was very near a civil war when World War I erupted in Europe. At this point, the Irish Volunteers split. One group supported British efforts in the war with Germany. The other group, along with the IRB, was totally against any support for British troops. It was with this group that Pearse aligned himself.

John Redmond, a member of Parliament fighting for Home Rule, took a pro British stance during the war. This alienated many Irish citizens and support for the Brotherhood grew. Shortly before 1915, the Irish Republican Brotherhood had plans for a full military revolution in Ireland. Pearse was a believer in a revolution while the British were occupied fighting a war in Europe. He felt that the only way to liberate Ireland was for people to die. He expressed these feelings in his famous oration at the funeral of Jeremiah O’Donovan Rossa in August 1915. Rossa was a member of the Sinn Féin party, which supported the use of force to free Ireland. In this oration, Pearse stated the following:

“We stand at Rossa’s grave not in sadness, but in exultation of spirit. This is a place of peace sacred to the dead, where men should speak with all charity and all restraint; but I hold it a Christian thing. to hate evil, to hate untruth, to hate oppression, and hating them to strive to overthrow them. while Ireland holds these graves, Ireland unfree, shall never be at peace.”
(DeRosa pp.73-74)

The actual planning for the Easter Rising of 1916 began almost two years before the actual rebellion. The planning was a very complicated process headed by Pearse and a select group of men on the military council of the IRB. Sir Roger Casement, an Englishman who believed in the Irish cause, was sent to Germany in an attempt to obtain arms. Casement convinced the Germans to send some rifles but the ship arrived early and was sunk by the British Navy. One of the most difficult aspects in the planning of the rising was its secrecy. Pearse and his comrades kept the rising secret from the highest leaders in the IRB, including Eoin MacNeill, the Chief of Staff of the IRB. The leaders on the Supreme Council opposed an insurrection while the military council was secretly planning one. Pearse noted that so many Irish risings had been defeated due to informants and resistance within the Irish themselves. For this reason, only about 30 people knew about the rising until a few days before it was to take place. As it drew near, the Supreme Council and the English government found out about the planned action. The British had sunk a German ship in Irish waters and arrested Sir Roger Casement upon his return to Ireland. The Supreme Council issued a statement in the Irish papers that all manoeuvres scheduled for Easter Sunday were cancelled. Upon this notification, the British officials were confident that there would be no conflict. Down, but not defeated, Pearse and the military council met to figure out what should be done.

It was decided that the rising would be put off one day, until Easter Monday. Pearse spread word to all of the forces around the country that manoeuvres would go the next day. Although many of the volunteers were happy, several were fed up with the inconsistency and opted not to participate in the rising. It was also at this meeting that Pearse and six others signed the “Proclamation of the Republic of Ireland” written mostly by Pearse. Shortly before the signing, the six members elected Pádraic H. Pearse president of Ireland. It truly was an emotional moment for the seven men for they knew that what they were signing was also their death warrant (DeRosa p.229).

On Monday, April 24, 1916, the revolution began. Pearse and his army took control of the General Post Office in Dublin along with several other buildings in Dublin. Above the Post Office, the Union Jack of England was hauled down, and the tricolor of Ireland raised. Shortly afterwards, Pearse accompanied by his brother, Willie, read the proclamation on the front steps of the Post Office. Ireland was free. Although the British were caught completely off guard, it did not take long for them to raise a force equal to that of the ill-equipped volunteers. The rebels surprised many by holding out for an entire week. However, under heavy artillery and out of ammunition, Pearse surrendered to the British on April 30. The battle was over, but Pearse had carved his name in history forever. Moreover, the Easter Rising is seen by many as the beginning of the end of English rule in Ireland.

On May 3, 1916 Pádraic H. Pearse and fourteen others are executed by firing squad without trial for leading the insurrection in Dublin. Eamon de Valera was the only leader spared because he was half American; the English government did not want sympathy for the Irish to grow in the United States (Foster p.198) The executions created a feeling of revulsion against the British and turned the leaders, especially Pearse, into martyrs. De Valera re-established the provisional government of Ireland in 1917 (Foster pp.200-202). This government was elected by Irish members of Parliament at a meeting in Dublin called the Dáil Éireann, meaning the “Irish Assembly.” Michael Collins formed the Irish Republican Army to carry out guerilla tactics against the British army and officials (BOL). Pearse’s poetic oration at Rossa’s funeral and the reading of the proclamation became symbols for Ireland’s new government. Attempts by Britain to rule Ireland with any authority were futile until the establishment of the Irish Free State in December 1921.

Although Patrick Pearse was executed and the rising was an immediate failure, it was an overall victory. Pearse accomplished what no other Irishmen in history had done. He led a rising that was a total surprise to the British military. He permanently unnerved the British presence in most of Ireland. His actions and subsequent execution was the turning point in Irish history. Patrick Pearse did exactly what he set out to do, he gave his life for the freedom of Ireland. Pearse’s words at Rossa’s funeral still ring true to this very day, “Ireland unfree, will never be at peace” (DeRosa p. 74). The fighting and bombings continue in Northern Ireland and there is no doubt that Patrick Pearse is still in the Irish Republican Army in spirit and soul.


Return to Patrick Pearse index – Home

Create a seamless cow texture/ pattern

This tutorial describes how you can easily create a seamless cow texture in Adobe Photoshop using the Lasso Tool and the Offset Filter.

Step 1.
The first thing you should do is go Google images to find some picture of cows. It’s not really necessary to complete this tutorial, but I recommend you do it anyway to get some original results.

Step 2.
Open Photoshop and create a new document of 600×600 pixels. Set White as the background color. Rename the Layer of the document to White by double clicking the Layer.

You can use a different size, but make sure your document is square and not to small otherwise the cow spots will repeat itself too often when you tile it.

Step 4.
Create a new Layer by clicking the Create a new Layer icon and rename this Layer Corner spots. Your Layers Palette should like like this:

Step 5.
Set Black as the Foreground color.

Step 6.
Select the Lasso Tool and use the following settings:

Select the first option (red square) so you will create a new selection each time you draw. The second option is to add to your selection, the third is to subtract from your selection and the fourth option is to intersect with your selection.

Set Feather to 0 pixels and check Anti-aliased. Anti-aliased smoothes the jagged edges of a selection by softening the color transition between edge pixels and background pixels. Feathering blurs edges by building a transition boundary between the selection and its surrounding pixels. This blurring can cause some loss of detail at the edge of the selection.

With the Lasso Tool you can draw freehand selection borders and straight edged-selection borders. To draw straight-edged borders you need to hold the Alt key down. For the cow spots we will draw a freehand selection border. Just drag your mouse after you have selected the Lasso tool and draw a nice medium sized cow spot. When you reach your starting point again the selection will be closed. Use the second and third option to adjust your cow spot if your not happy with a part.

Here is my result:

Step 7.
Select the Paint Bucket Tool and fill the selection with black, press Ctrl + D to undo the selection. Your Layers palette should know look like this:

Step 8.
Go to Filter option in the Menu bar and select Other, select the Offset Filter. The Offset Filter moves a selection a specified horizontal or vertical amount, leaving an empty space at the selection’s original location.

After you selected the Offset Filter you will get a dialog box where you need to set the horizontal and vertical offset. If the document is 600×600, use the following settings so the cow spot will appear in the four corners of the document. If you choose a different size for the document, use half the document width and height for the horizontal and vertical offset. Also make sure you selected Wrap Around in the Undefined Areas section.

After applying the offset filter:

Step 9.
Create a new layer and rename it to Middle spots. Select the Lasso Tool again and create one or two cow spots in the same spot where you created the first spot. Fill the selection with the Paint Bucket tool and use black as your color.

For two spots create a second new layer. Make sure this layer is above the Middle spots layer and after you created the second spot, press Ctrl + E to merge the two Layers together.

Step 10.
Press Ctrl + E to merge the Middle Spots Layer on the Corner Spots Layer. Your Layers Palette should look like this:

Step 11.
We now have all the cow spots on the same layer. Go to the Filter menu again, select Artistic and select the Palette knife Filter. I want to make the corners a bit rounder and more natural looking. There are several filters you can use for this, but I found the Palette knife gives the best result. If you prefer, you can also try the Paint daubs Filter or the Poster Edges Filter just see for yourself.

I used the following settings for the Palette knife Filter:

Step 12.
Save your file as .psd by selecting File and Save as. Save it as a .jpg by selecting File and Save for the Web.

Step 13.
Save it as Pattern in Photoshop by selecting Edit and choose Define Pattern. Name your Pattern cow.

Step 14.
Create a new document and make it the size of your desktop. Mine is 1024×768.

Step 15.
Choose Edit and select Fill or press Shift + F5. You will get a pop up screen. Choose Pattern, Custom Pattern and select your cow pattern. Leave the Blending options at default (Mode to Normal and Opacity to 100%). Press Ok and your pattern will seamless fill your document.

You can also select the Paint Bucket Tool and use the following options:

Step 16.
You can also choose the Layer Style; Pattern Overlay. To do this double click, next to the Layers name, on your Layer in the new document you just created. You will get a pop up screen. Choose Pattern Overlay and click on the name Pattern Overlay so you will see the options for this Style. Choose your Cow pattern. Leave the Blend mode to normal, Opacity to 100%. You can play with the scale option until your find something you like and press ok.

You can also use this option to give your text a cow pattern. Make sure the text is on a separate Layer if you want to do this.

Step 17.
You can save the pattern by choosing the brush option and select the little arrow you see when choosing your Pattern. You can also save it by going to the Preset Manager. I wrote a tutorial about organizing your brushes with the Preset Manager but the same applies for Patterns.

This tutorial is created originally for 3Dvalley.com. You are not allowed to redistribute this tutorial in any form.

Instructors

Scotta Brady, E-RYT 500, NASM-CPT is a Certified Yoga Teacher and Personal Trainer who began her formal yoga studies in 1996 after graduating from Auburn University with a B.A. in Philosophy. Blessed with the opportunity to study with many inspiring teachers around the world, she is full of immense gratitude for and admiration of each one. She is grateful to all of her teachers who have given her knowledge and support along the path. Studying yoga since 1996, Scotta began teaching in 2000 as service to the Mississippi community and beyond.

Randi Young-Jerome is a native Texan who moved to Jackson, Mississippi in 2000 to attend Millsaps College. She began taking classes after seeing Missihippy, Jackson’s Premier belly dance troupe, perform one Friday night at Aladdin Mediterranean Grill. She became a troupe apprentice in 2008 and a core member in 2010. One of the many things she loves about this dance is that it is an ancient art form that is still vibrant and alive, constantly evolving. It is a rich, multifaceted dance that holds something for everyone.

Check back soon for more information.

Jennifer is away on sabbatical doing some yoga teacher training with a friend of ours, Amy Ippoliti, and doing some travel Occupational Therapy in Boulder, CO. We miss her and hope she’ll be back for more than just a visit with her family who she is very close to. but who knows!

Related Posts:

cialis en ligne en belgique
cheapest viagra cialis levitra
cialis 5mg kaufen lilly
cost of 5mg cialis at walgreens
buy cialis 20mg online canada
prix du cialis 10mg cpr4
order cialis with mastercard
cialis for sale in calgary
cialis legal online bestellen
cheapest uk cialis

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>